Sura al-Dukhan

Priority: b, Quality: b
From wikishia
Sura al-Dukhan
Error creating thumbnail:
Sura Number44
Revelation Number64
Verse Count59
Word Count346
Letter Count1475\

This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Dukhan; to read its text see text:Sura al-Dukhan.

Sūra al-Dukhan (Arabic: سورة الدخان) is the forty fourth sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' twenty five. It is called al-Dukhan because its tenth verse speaks about affliction of disbelievers with a divine punishment (smoke).

Sura al-Dukhan mentions that the Qur'an was revealed in the night of al-Qadr and warns disbelievers who doubt the Qur'an. In this sura, the stories of Prophet Moses (a), Israelites and the followers of Pharaoh are mentioned. About the reward for recitation of Sura al-Dukhan, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura al-Dukhan on the eve of Friday, his sins will be forgiven.


  • Naming

It is called al-Dukhan which means "smoke" because its tenth verse speaks about affliction of disbelievers with a smoke in the sky as divine punishment.[1]

  • Place and Order of Revelation

Sura al-Dukhan is a Makki sura and sixty fourth sura reveled to the Prophet (s). This sura is the forty fourth sura in the current compilation of the Qur'an[2] and located in juz' twenty five.

  • Number of Verses and other Features

Sura al-Dukhan has fifty nine verses, 346 words, and 1475 letters. This sura begins with disjoined letters (al-muqatta'a) of Ha-Mim; thus, it has been considered among hawamim suras. Regarding size, Sura al-Dukhan is among al-mathani suras and less than a hizb.[3]


According to al-Mizan, the primary aim of this sura is warning those who doubt the truth of the Qur'an. Sura al-Dukhan mentions that the Qur'an was revealed by God at the night of al-Qadr for the guidance of humanity; however, disbelievers doubt that because of their vain desires. Then, it warns them that they will be afflicted with punishments in this world and in the hereafter.[4] According to Tafsir-i nimuna, like other Makki suras, Sura al-Dukhan speaks about beliefs. Unity of God, the hereafter and the Qur'an are its three major topics. In addition, in this sura, the punishments of disbelievers, story of Prophet Moses (a), Israelites, followers of Pharaoh and the philosophy of creation are discussed.[5]

Content of Sura al-Dukhan[6]
Punishment for opposition against the Qur'an and divine signs
First topic: verses 1-8
Characteristics of the Qur'an
Second topic: verses 9-33
Punishment for opposition against divine signs in this world
Third topic: verses 34-57
Punishment for opposition against divine signs in the hereafter
Conclusion: verses 58-59
Those who fight the Qur'an should await divine punishment
First point: verses 1-2
The Qur'an clarifies truths
First point: verses 34-42
Truth of the punishment of disbelievers in this world and in the hereafter
Second point: verses 3-5
Revelation of the Qur'an by God was at the night of al-Qadr
Second point: verses 43-50
Punishment of disbelievers and sinners in the hereafter
Third point: verses 6-8
The Qur'an is the mercy of God
Third point: verses 51-57
Reward of the God-wary in the hereafter

Historical Stories and Reports

The story of Moses (a) and Israelites: The mission of Moses (a), God's order for the Exodus, crossing the sea and drowning of the followers of Pharaoh, survival of Israelites, their superiority over the world, verses 17 – 32.[7]

Merits and Benefits

According to a hadith from the Prophet (a), whoever recites Sura al-Dukhan on the eve of Friday, his sins will be forgiven.[8]

Also, it is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that whoever recites Sura al-Dukhan in his obligatory and recommended prayers, God will resurrect him together with believers, will place him in the shadow of His mercy, will be easy on him in reckoning his deeds and they will give his record of deeds to his right hand.[9] In Mafatih al-jinan, recitation of Sura al-Dukhan is mentioned among recommended practices on the eve of Ramadan 23rd (one of the nights of al-Qadr).


External Links


  1. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 21, p. 144.
  2. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 166.
  3. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1250.
  4. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 18, p. 129.
  5. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 21, p. 143-144.
  6. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  7. Certainly We tried the people of Pharaoh before them, when a noble apostle came to them, (17)[saying,] ‘Give over the servants of Allah to me; indeed I am a trusted apostle [sent] to you.(18) Do not defy Allah. Indeed I bring you a manifest authority.(19) I seek the protection of my Lord and your Lord, lest you should stone me. (20) And if you do not believe me, keep out of my way.’ (21) Then he invoked his Lord, [saying,] ‘These are indeed a guilty lot.’ (22) [Allah told him,] ‘Set out by night with My servants; for you will be pursued. (23) Leave behind the sea unmoving; for they will be a drowned host.’ (24) How many gardens and springs did they leave behind! (25) Fields and splendid places, (26) and the affluence wherein they rejoiced! (27) So it was; and We bequeathed them to another people. (28) So neither the sky wept for them, nor the earth; nor were they granted any respite. (29) Certainly We delivered the Children of Israel from the humiliating torment (30) of Pharaoh. Indeed, he was a tyrant among the transgressors. (31) Certainly We chose them knowingly above all the nations, (32)
  8. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 9, p. 91.
  9. Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 114.
  10. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, p. 324.


  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. [n.p]: Markaz Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh.
  • Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Mafātīḥ al-jinān. Tehran: Nashr-i Mashʿar, 1386 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl. Qom: Dār al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1406 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Mūhammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1417 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī & Yazdī Ṭabāṭabāyī. Third edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.