|Tawhid (Monotheism)||Tawhid of Essence • Tawhid in Attributes • Tawhid in Actions • Tawhid in Worship|
|Other Beliefs||Tawassul • Shafa'a • Tabarruk|
|Bada' • Amr Bayn al-Amrayn|
|Infallibility • 'Ilm al-ghayb • Mu'jiza • Integrity of the Holy Qur'an|
|Infallibility • Wilaya • 'Ilm al-ghayb • Occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a) (Minor Occultation,Major Occultation) • Reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a) • Raj'a|
|End Time • Hereafter • Barzakh • Embodiment of Actions •Bodily Resurrection • Al-Sirat • Tatayur al-Kutub • Mizan • Hashr|
|Other Outstanding Beliefs|
|Ahl al-Bayt (a) • The Fourteen Infallibles • Taqiyya • Marja'iyya • Tawalli • Tabarri|
The integrity of the holy Qur'an (Arabic: سلامة القرآن من التحريف) is one of the muslim thoughts. Muslims unanimously agree that the Qur'an is unaltered and undistorted. Theologians and experts in exegetical sciences have cited some verses and narrations to reject any kind of possible omission from the Qur'an. According to mainstream Shi'a scholars, exegetes, jurists, and experts in Qur'anic sciences, the present Qur'an, with all its orders and structures, was written and documented during the life of the Prophet (s).
Some Mu'tazili theologians, like Khayyat al- Mu'tazila and Abu 'Ali al-Juba'i, have accused Shi'a of believing in distortion of the Qur'an. After the publication of Fasl al-khitab by al-Muhaddith al-Nuri, this accusation entered a new phase. In many works, Shi'a scholars have criticized the book of al-Muhaddith al-Nuri.
Hadith of Thaqalayn, narrations promising rewards for recitation of each sura, accountability of present Qur'an in different theological and jurisprudential disputes, and challenge for similar verses, are among the most substantial arguments for the fact that the Qur'an is undistorted.
Lexicology and Terminology
Lexically, Tahrif (تحريف) means displacement and distortion. Tahrif in exegetical sciences refers mainly to possible later addition or omission of the Holy Text. Nobody holds the opinion of addition in the Qur'an, and it is a consensual belief among Muslims, therefore, discussion about distortion in the Qur'an usually pertains to the possible omission.
Qur'an Based Arguments
The Ninth Verse of Sura al-Hijr
إِنّا نَحنُ نَزَّلنَا الذِّكرَ وَإِنّا لَهُ لَحافِظونَ
Indeed We have sent down the Reminder, and indeed We will preserve it.
|— Quran 15:9|
According to exegetes, the word "Reminder" (al-Zikr) in the verse refers to the Qur'an, and being so, Allah has stressed and promised full protection of the Qur'an against any addition or omission. Nearly all of Mufassirun from both schools of thought, including Fadl b. Hasan al-Tabrisi and al-Zamakhshari hold the same opinion in this regard.
Objection and Answer
The former argument has been rejected on the basis of the apparent circular reasoning. Since the validity of this argument is dependent on the authenticity of the verse at hand, thus the integrity of the Qur'an. The reply to this objection, however, is that this argument is presented to convince Muslims who believe in a possible omission from the Qur'an. Since the discussion about Qur'an's integrity in Muslim circles only refers to possible omission, not addition, the present verses of the Qur'an are believed to contain no false addition, thus authentic.
41st and 42nd Verses of Sura Fussilat
In these verses of the Qur'an 41, al-Batil (falsehood, state of being void), has been denied from Qur'an.
وَإِنَّهُ لَكِتابٌ عَزيزٌ لا يَأتيهِ الباطِلُ مِن بَينِ يَدَيهِ وَلا مِن خَلفِهِ تَنزيلٌ مِن حَكيمٍ حَميدٍ
...Indeed it is an august Book: (41) falsehood cannot approach it, from before it nor from behind it, a [gradually] sent down [revelation] from One all-wise, all-laudable.
|— Quran 41:41, 42|
As omission is an instance of al-Batil (being void), according to this verse, any omission has been denied from the Qur'an. Even pro-distortion individuals accept that the word: al-Batil signifies any kind of unwanted change in the original version. Hence, it can be argued against them that the omission is clearly a change in the original text and is rejected according to the verse. Generally, Qur'anic interpreters hold similar views in this regard.
- "Compare what has been narrated from us, with what is stated in the Qur'an, whatever of the narrations are inconsistent with the holy book, we haven't said it, and it is a false report."
It's been argued that: had not the present Qur'an been authentic and complete, presenting it as a criterion for reliable narrations would have been a false address from the Ahl al-Bayt (a); or as al-Muhaqqiq al-Thani puts: demanding Shi'as to refer to a different Qur'an rather than the present Qur'an, is to impose upon them an unbearable obligation (Taklif ma la yutaq) , so what is meant and has been authenticated in these narrations of the Ahl al-Bayt (a), is the present Qur'an.
Hadith of Thaqalayn
One of the very important narrations in proving the Qur'an's integrity is the Hadith of Thaqalayn. This mutawatir Hadith has been taken as refuting the alleged distortion. In this Hadith, the necessity of referring to the Qur'an and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) in every era is emphasized. Now, if anyone believes in omissions from the Qur'an, the Qur'an is not authentic for such a person any longer since it is possible for supposedly omitted parts to have a decisive role in understanding the surviving part. Therefore, such a person must decide whether to accept the Mutiwatir Hadith of Thaqalayn that authenticates the Qur'an for every era or to accept the alleged distortion's narrations.
Narrations Concerning Practical Laws
Some jurisprudential narrations have been taken as demonstrating Qur'an's Integrity. For example, some narrations indicate: In each prayer, it is obligatory to recite a complete sura after Sura al-Hamd (Qur'an 1). This ruling is consensual among Shi'a scholars. It's been argued against distortion that, with the probable textual omission from the Qur'an, this ruling remains impractical, as no one can be certain about instances of a complete sura. This ruling cannot be based on Taqiyya (precautionary dissimulation) because; many Sunni jurisprudential schools do not obligate recitation of a complete sura after (Qur'an 1).
Narrations Promising Rewards
There are many narrations from the Prophet (s) and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) that explain the merits or promise certain rewards for the recitation of certain suras or the whole Qur'an. Al-Shaykh al-Saduq explicitly denies distortion of the Qur'an from Shi'a beliefs. He regards the accusation of distortion against Shi'a as a "pure lie" and writes:
- there is a proof for what we have just said (regarding Qur'an's integrity) in narrations that promise rewards for the recitation of certain suras, and in narrations that allow the recitation of two suras in one Rak'a of Nafila prayer, and in narrations that promise rewards for the recitation of the whole Qur'an, and in the narration that disliked the recitation of the whole Qur'an over a night or less than three days.
(In all of these cases, the integrity of the Qur'an has been postulated by the Ahl al-Bayt (a); otherwise, these are either unattainable rewards or impractical orders.)
Decisive in Disputed Matters
In the narrations from the Ahl al-Bayt (a), Qur'an is cited as an authoritative source, upon which disputes can be settled. For example, in response to Mu'awiya, who claimed that a proportionate part of the Qur'an had been perished, Imam al-Hasan (a) is reported to have said: "by Allah, this claim is a pure lie." Also, in opposition to misapplication of the Qur'an, Imam al-Baqir (a) emphasizes the textual consistency of the Qur'an; however, the ruling party, according to the Imam, was misusing its application for social and political interests.
Great Reception and Preservation by Muslims
Since the early days of Islam's emergence, the Qur'an met a great reception both by the Prophet (s) himself and his companions. After being revealed by Jabra'il (Gabriel), each part of the Qur'an was recited and dictated by the Prophet (s) and the writers of the Qur'an, especially the Commander of the Faithful (a), would write it down. In addition to writing, shortly after its revelation, each verse was circulated among Muslims, and through this oral circulation, the collective memory of the Muslim community preserved unshakably every single verse of the Qur'an.
The sensitivity of Muslims to preserve the textual consistency of the Qur'an is reflected in many historical reports. As an instance, when 'Uthman b. 'Affan wanted to omit one conjunction, namely the first "and" from this phrase of the Qur'an: "And as for those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in Allah's Way…."(Qur'an, 9:34); then Ubbay b. Ka'b warned him that should 'Uthman not place the conjunction back, he (Ubbay) would take out his sword.
In another case, this time regarding the recitation of the verse 100th of Qur'an 9, the second caliph wanted to change the case of the word: "al-ansar-i" from being majrur (roughly: dative) to nominative case, to be recited: "al-ansar-u". In this way, Emigrants (al-Muhajirun) would have been introduced by the Qur'an as leaders for Helpers (al-Ansar). This, clearly, was in the interest of Emigrants. Again a group of Muslims, including Ubbay b. Ka'b protested against this move and said that the verse's original recitation had been different from what 'Umar b. Khattab tried to pretend. Also, 'Umar believed there had been a verse in the original Qur'an in which the ruling of stoning was mentioned, but he hid this opinion from the public, as he had the fear that Muslims would accuse him of addition to the Book of Allah.
It's been narrated from Ibn Zubayr that 'Uthman b. 'Affan, in response to this question: "why don't you omit the verse 240 of Qur'an 2? because another verse had expired the ruling in this verse, Said: "I'll never change nor omit what is in the Qur'an." Now it becomes clearer that all Muslims and companions were fully aware of the detailed conditions of preservation. Even the slightest difference in the recitation of the Qur'an would cause them to protest and stand against any possible change either in the text or the recitation of the Qur'an.
Accusing Shi'as of the Belief in Distortion
Perhaps, Khayyat al-Mu'tazili (d. 300/912-3) was the first to attribute such a belief to Shi'a. The sophistry, however, is that he accuses Shi'a of believing in additional distortion; that is, Shi'a believe the present Qur'an contains later additions and fabricated verses. But no Shi'a is reported to have such an opinion. According to an account by Sayyid b. Tawus, Abu 'Ali Jubayi (d. 303/915-6), another Mu'atazili theologian, labeled al-Rawafid with the belief in distortion in its broadest sense; including omission, addition, and change in the text of The Qur'an. In Maqalat al-islamiyyin, Abu l-Hasan al-Ash'ari distinguishes between those Shi'as who believe in distortion and those who don't. Qadi 'abd al-Jabbar holds the same opinion and writes: within Rawafid, Imamiyyah believe that Qur'an 33 had weighed a camel load (but now it is much lesser; thus they believe in omissions from the Qur'an). Contrarily and somewhat surprisingly, the historical report about Qur'an 33 has no Shi'a narrator at all, all its transmitters, including different chains of narration, were Sunnis.
In another account, the difference between Shi'a and al-Rawafid has been drawn by Baqilani (d. 403/1012-3) in Nukat al-Intisar. After positively attributing the belief of distortion to al-Rawafid, Baqilani writes most of Shi'as, however, follow the Infallible's word in rejecting distortion and believing in the Integrity of The Qur'an. Along the line of these accusations, Ibn Hazm (d.456/1063-4) writes in his book, al-Fisal: from early days, Imamiyyah believed in changes in the Qur'an, that is: certain parts have been omitted or falsely added.
Lately, these accusations have soared as Muhaddith Nuri published his controversial work, Fasl al-khitab. Shi'a scholars have protested against this book in many works. In an honest move and along the stance made by major Shi'a scholars, some Sunni scholars too, have recognized Shi'a's firm belief in Qur'an's integrity.
Shi'a Scholars' Stance
According to most of Shi'a scholars, Qur'an's commentators and jurists, the present Qur'an was formed and consolidated, with the same order and sequence, during the life of the Prophet (s). some of Shi'a scholars who hold this view are as follows: Abu l-Qasim 'Abd al-Hay b. Ahmid al-Balkhi al-Khurasani (d. 390/999-1000), Abu Bakr al-Anbari (d. 328/939-40), al-Sharif al-Murtada (d.436/1044-5) , Hakim Jishumi (d. 494/1100-1) Maumud b. Hamza Kirmani (d. circa505/1111-2), Fadl b. Hasan al-Tabrisi (d. 548/1153-4) Sayyid b. Tawus (b. 664/1266) Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharf al-Din (d. 1377/1957), Ayatollah Burujirdi (d. 1380/1961), and Ayatollah Khoei (d. 1412/1992).
Shi'a Scholars' Arguments for Authenticity of the Qur'an
Shi'a Muslim scholars have argued that: it is not rationally acceptable for the final Prophet (s) to neglect the formation of his miraculous book, which was to be the source for personal and social conducts within Islamic tradition. Some of these scholars, like Ayatollah Khoei, have regarded the reports about "the post-Prophet formation of the Qur'an" as unreliable and believe different individuals with complex motivations fabricated such reports. These scholars believe the present text and order of the Qur'an was, undoubtedly, given to it during the time of the Prophet (s). Whether accepted or not, there are historical pieces of evidence of textual collection and formal consolidation of the Qur'an during the life of the Prophet (s). Thus the myth of "scattered Qur'an" during the life of the Prophet (s) is severely challenged and holds no ground to disprove Qur'an's integrity.
Ayatollah Burujirdi believes that by considering the circumstances of the Islamic society, having a proper picture of the Islamic history, and understanding Muslims' efforts to preserve the text of the Qur'an, it is rationally impossible for anyone to believe in distortion.
Ayatollah Khomeini rejects the idea of distortion and argues: in addition to supportive shreds of evidence for Shi'a belief in present Qur'an, had any of supposedly omitted part of the Qur'anic text been in favor of Shi'a, it must have been used and reported in the defensive debates of Imam 'Ali (a), Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a), other Imams (a) or their true companions like: Salman, Miqdad and Abu Dhar.
Naming of the Imams in the Qur'an
According to pro-distortion individuals, most textual omissions have taken place in the verses where, assumingly, the names of the Imams were explicitly stated. It's been claimed that their names had been mentioned in several parts of the original text, but later these phrases were omitted. Contrary to this, according to a Sahih narration, Imam al-Sadiq (a) has refuted the universality of such conception by citing verses where merely the generalities of practical laws were mentioned and the details were left to the Sunna of the Prophet (s).
Criticizing the Arguments for the Distortion of Holy Qur'an
On the opposite side, pro-distortion individuals support their claim with certain narrations. The authenticity and demonstrability of these seemingly several narrations, have been scrutinized and rejected by Shi'a scholars. According to Ayatollah Burujirdi, a proportionate number of these narrations were narrated by Ahmid b. Muhammad Sayyari, whose narrations are to be rejected; for early Rijal and Hadith experts have explicitly stated the falsehood and deviation in his school of thought.
According to Mahdi Burujirdi, all of Fasl al-Khitab's (Muhaddith Nuri's book) narrations fit in twelve categories which by analytic studies, show no relevance to the idea of distortion, rather these narrations address the differences in recitation, interpretation and application of the verses of the Qur'an; yet with the existence of Ghali, lier, and fabricator narrators in the chains of transmission, the reliability of these narrations is highly questionable.
There are narrations in Sunni and Shi'a collections that explicitly consider certain omissions from the Qur'an, but they are mostly rejected on the basis of their weak chain of transmission; the rest, however, include phrases about interpretation and commentary of the Qur'an, not its textual consistency.
the Narration in al-Kafi
Among such narrations is a narration from al-Kafi, which indicates that the Qur'an had seventeen thousand verses. (nearly tripled of its current size). This narration has been dually rejected and justified:
- According to his report, in Fayd al-Kashani's copy of al-Kafi, the number had been recorded: seven thousand; in this case, this narration is pointing to the numerousness of Qur'anic verses, not the exact number.
- In a grave matter like this, a single report cannot be trusted, especially a single narration that is in conflict with many other authentic narrations that prove the Qur'an's integrity and encourage the recitation and reliance of the present Qur'an.
Mushaf of Imam Ali (a) and the Idea of Distortion
In recent years, some Sunni scholars tend to accuse Shi'a of the belief in distortion, by misreporting the accounts about Mushaf Imam Ali (a). but from earliest days, Shi'a scholars have stated with great care and sensitivity, that the additional parts of Mushaf Imam Ali (a) are a kind of explanative revelation, not Qur'anic; therefore, they are more relevant to areas of interpretation, explanation, Muhkam/Mutishabih, and historical coincidences. According to al-Shaykh al-Mufid, whatever record which was in the Mushaf Imam Ali (a) and is not in the present Qur'an, was merely the interpretation, true examples and applications of the present Qur'anic verses, not original parts of the Miraculous Qur'an. According to Ayatollah Khoei, the existence of additions in the Mushaf Imam Ali (a) is unquestionable; however, these parts were not, most certainly, Qur'anic verses.
Fustat narrations and the idea of Distortion
Some narrations, known as Fustat (tent) have been taken as support for the Idea of Distortion. In these narrations, it's been prophesized that when the twelfth Imam (a) reappears, he will put up Fustat(tents) in which he will teach the Qur'an according to its [original] revelation, and this will be unbearable for some people, for they will find it in contrast with the order of the present Qur'an. Similar indications have been expressed in some other narrations, and some individuals have tried to support the idea of distortion by such reports, to which Shi'a scholars have replied. These narrations, if to be accepted, address the order of the chapters, not the textual consistency of the Qur'an.
The idea of unintentional distortion is associated mostly with the process of documentation and formation of the Holy Qur'an. According to this viewpoint, during the life of the Prophet (s), Qur'an was written in scattered pieces of paper, animal skins, etc. and no certain type of order nor did sequence exist in it. So the probability of accidental negligence of certain verses during the final documentation of the Qur'an remains high. Aside from the fact that the belief in the post-Prophet formation of the Qur'an does not necessarily results in distortion or omission from the Qur'an; furthermore, in recent studies and based on historical evidence and reports, researchers have been convinced of the formation of the Qur'an during the life of the Prophet (s). Upon Prophet's lead and encouragement, every verse was written, documented, and each chapter was decisively defined.
Although some narrations indicate the post-Prophet formation of the Qur'an, after detailed textual and historical analyses, these narrations seem to be fabricated upon theological and political motivations.
- Farahidi, Khalil b. Ahmad. Kitab al-'ayn
- Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. p. 197-198; Ma'rifat, Muhammad Hadi. Siyanat al-Qur'an min al-tahrif. p. 13-16
- Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. p. 200
- Ibn Abu Hatam. Tafsir al-Qur'an al-'azim. vol. 7. p. 2258
- Tabarsi, Fadl b. Hasan. Majma' al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an. Under the verse; Fayd Kashani, Muhsin. Kitab al-safi fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 3. p. 102; Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn. al-Mizan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 12. p. 101
- Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. p. 207; Ma'rifat, Muhammad Hadi. Siyanat al-Qur'an min al-tahrif. p. 47
- Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. p. 210
- Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. p. 210; Ma'rifat, Muhammad Hadi. Siyanat al-Qur'an min al-tahrif. p. 49-50
- see: al-Shaykh al-Tusi, Muhammad b. Hasan. al-Tibyan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 9. p. 131-132; Maraghi, Ahmad Mustafa. Tafsir al-maraghi. vol. 24. p. 138
- see: Burujirdi, Mahdi. al-Burhan 'ala 'adam tahrif al-Qur'an. p. 116-118
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- Ibn Hazm. al-Fisal. vol. 5. p. 40
- Ma'rifat, Muhammad Hadi. Siyanat al-Qur'an min al-tahrif. p. 59-78
- Dihlavi, Rahmat allah b. Khalil al-Rahman. Izhar al-haqq. p. 354
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- Zarkishi, Muhammad b. Bahadur. Al-Burhan fi 'ulum al-Qur'an. vol. 1. p. 259
- Tabarsi, Fadl b. Hasan. Majma' al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an. vol. 1. p. 84
- Sayyid b. Tawus, 'Ali b. Musa. Sa'd al-su'ud. p. 315
- Sharaf al-Din, 'Abd al-Husayn. Ajwabat masa'il jar allah. p. 28
- Muntaziri, Husayn 'Ali. Nihayat al-usul. p. 428
- Khoei, Abu l-Qasim. al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an. p. 239-247
- Sayyid b. Tawus, 'Ali b. Musa. Sa'd al-su'ud. p. 315;Sharaf al-Din, 'Abd al-Husayn. Ajwabat masa'il jar allah. p. 28
- Muntaziri, Husayn 'Ali. Nihayat al-usul. p. 482-483
- Khomeini, Ruh Allah. Anwar al-hidaya fi al-ta'liqat 'ala al-kifaya .vol. 1. p. 345-347
- Kulayni, Muhmmad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 1. p. 286-288
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- Kulayni, Muhmmad b. Ya'qub. al-Kafi. vol. 2. p. 634
- Fayd Kashani, Muhsin. al-Wafi. vol. 9. 1780-1781
- al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babawayh. al-I'tiqadat al-imamiyya. p. 84-85
- al-Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir. Bihar al-anwar. vol. 12. p. 525
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- Muntaziri, Husayn 'Ali. Nihayat al-usul. p. 483-484
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