Sūra al-Ḥujurāt (Arabic: سورة الحجرات) is the forty ninth sura of the Qur'an. It is a Madani sura located in juz' twenty six. "Al-Hujurat" is the plural form of "al-hujra" (الحجرة), meaning "room". It is mentioned in verse four of this sura. This sura speaks about the appropriate behavior toward the Prophet (s) and also socio-moral issues such as suspicion, snooping, and backbiting.
Some of the famous verses of this sura are al-ukhuwwa verse which introduces believers brothers to each other, the "verse of Naba'" which advises not to trust all persons who bring news and the verse thirteen which considers more God-wary people more honorable before God.
The word "al-hujurat" is mentioned in verse four of this sura. "Al-hujurat" is the plural form of "al-hujra" meaning "room" and refers to different rooms beside the mosque of the Prophet (s) for his wives.
- Order and Place of Revelation
- Number of Verses and Words
According to Tafsir al-Mizan, this sura contains moral instructions, such as the manners of communication with God, manners which should be observed in contact with the Prophet (s) and the manners regarding the relations between people in the society. This sura also speaks about the criterion for the superiority of people over each other and finally mentions the truth of faith and Islam. This sura orders Muslims not to pay attention to gossips and avoid backbiting, foul language, finding people's faults and relying on conjectures and orders them to establish peace and reconcile between Muslims.
- Main article: Al-Naba' Verse
|“||O you who have faith! If a profligate [person] should bring you some news, verify it, lest you should visit [harm] on some people out of ignorance, and then become regretful for what you have done.||”|
|— Qur'an, 49:6|
Most exegetes considered the event about Walid b. 'Aqaba as the occasion of revelation of this verse when the Prophet (s) sent him to Banu l-Mustaliq tribe for collecting zakat. According to Tafsir al-Mizan, the people of this tribe decided to go to the Prophet (s) and give zakat, but the Prophet (s) had sent Walid to collect their zakat. In the middle of the way, Walid feared them and returned and lied to the Prophet (s) that they refrained to give zakat and wanted to kill him. Therefore, the Prophet (s) prepared an army to fight with them, but when the two groups met each other, it was known that Walid had lied. So, the above verse was revealed.
- Main article: Ukhuwwa Verse
|“||The faithful are indeed brothers. Therefore make peace between your brothers and be wary of Allah, so that you may receive [His] mercy.||”|
|— Qur'an, 49:10|
According to this verse, believers are brothers to each other and in case of occurring fight between them, other Muslims are responsible to reconcile between them. When this verse was revealed, the Prophet (s) established the brotherhood covenant among Muslims; like between Abu Bakr and Umar, Uthman and Abd al-Rahman b. 'Awf and between other companions, based on their positions. He (s) then chose Ali b. Abi Talib (a) as his brother and told Ali (a), "you are my brother and I am your brother."
- Main article: Backbiting Verse
|“||O you who have faith! Avoid much suspicion. Indeed some suspicions are sins. And do not spy on or backbite one another...||”|
|— Qur'an, 49:12|
In this verse, three moral issues are mentioned: avoiding suspicious, snooping and backbiting. According to Tafsir-i nimuna, these three moral issues are related to each other; suspicion provides the ground for snooping and snooping in others' affairs provides the ground for backbiting them and revealing private issues in their lives. In Tafsir al-Mizan, it is mentioned that backbiting eats the limbs of the body of the society and rots it. To prove the prohibition of backbiting a believer brother, jurists have referred to this verse.
God-wariness, the Benchmark
|“||O mankind! Indeed, We created you from a male and a female, and made you nations and tribes that you may identify yourselves with one another. Indeed the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most Godwary among you. Indeed Allah is all-knowing, all-aware.||”|
|— Qur'an, 49:13|
This verse has been focused both in moral writings and in theological discussions to reject racial superiority of humans over each other. According to Tafsir-i nimuna, the verse says that all humans are from one origin and should not boast to each other about their lineages and tribes. This verse introduces God-wariness as the only true criterion of the superiority of humans before God.
This verse has also been referred to by the intellectual and political movement of "Shu'ubiyya". Shu'ubiyya was a group of Iranians who referred to the above verse and believed that no tribe is superior to another and opposed the racist policies of Umayyads.
Merits and Benefits
In Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s) that if a person recites Sura al-Hujurat, God will give him ten rewards per everyone who obeys Him and everyone who disobeys Him. Also, in al-Shaykh al-Saduq's Thawab al-a'mal, it is transmitted that whoever recites Sura al-hujurat every day or every night, will be among the visitors of the Prophet (s).
|For the full text, see text:Sura al-Hujurat.|
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