Sūra Yūnus (Arabic: سورة يونس) is the tenth sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' eleven. This sura was named "Yunus" because it explains the life of the Prophet Yunus (Jonah). Sura Yunus speaks about the issues of revelation, high position of the Prophet (s), signs of the glory of creation and transience of this world and invites people to the hereafter. In this sura, the story of flood of Noah (a), the life of Moses (a) and people of Pharaoh are mentioned as well.
One of the famous verses of Sura Yunus is verse thirty-eight in which the Prophet (s) challenges the rejecters and tells them that if they are true to their word, they should bring one sura like the suras of the Qur'an. It is said that this challenge is a sign of miraculous nature of the Qur'an. In hadiths, it is mentioned that whoever recites Sura Yunus, God will give him rewards ten times of those who accepted or rejected Prophet Yunus (a) and those who were drowned together with Pharaoh.
This sura is named "Sura Yunus", because it tells the story of Prophet Yunus (a) (Jonah).
- Order and Place of Revelation
Sura Yunus is a Makki sura and only verses ninety four to ninety six of this sura were revealed in Medina. This sura was the fifty-first sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of compilation, this is the tenth sura of the Qur'an, located in juz' eleven.
- Number of Verses and other Features
Sura Yunus has 109 verses, 1844 words and 7593 letters. Regarding volume, this sura is among al-Mi'in suras and is about two-thirds of one juz'. Sura Yunus is the forth sura beginning with disjoined letters.
Sura Yunus discusses issues including the signs of God's power, reasons for proving the existence of God, revelation, prophethood and the mission of the prophets, versus about creation and natural sciences, secrets of creation and complicated secrets in them. It gives an allegory of the truth of the world and its transience and draws the attention toward the hereafter. In this sura, some stories about the lives of prophets including Noah (a), Moses (a) and Yunus (a) are mentioned and the position of the Prophet (s) is discussed as well. The signs of the greatness of creation as the sign of God's Glory, preparation for the hereafter through having faith and righteous deeds are among other issues mentioned in this sura. Also, some of the verses of this sura speak about the obstinacy of idol-worshippers and they are called to their nature, telling that they remember the One God at the times of great troubles.
|Defending the Genuineness of the Glorious Qur'an|
|First chapter: verses 1-56|
Answer to the questions of disbelievers about the genuineness of the Glorious Quran
|Second chapter: verses 57-109|
Inviting humans to follow the Qur'an and divine verses
|Introduction: verse 1|
Wiseness of the Teachings of the Qur'an
|First question: verses 2-14|
Receiving revelation about the Judgement by a human is impossible
|Second question: verses 15-19|
The Qur'an disagrees our beliefs! Alter that!
|Third question: verses 20-36|
Why does not God send other signs instead of the Qur'an?
|Fourth question: verses 37-44|
The Qur'an is made by the Prophet (a)
|Fifth question: verses 45-56|
Since the time of the promised punishment is not known, it is not true
|First issue: verses 57-58|
The Qur'an is guidance and mercy
|First answer: verses 3-6|
Happening of the Judgement Day is a part of the world's management
|First answer: verses 15-17|
The Qur’an is from God and I cannot change it
|First answer: verse 20|
Issues of the unseen are in the hand of God alone
|First answer: verse 37|
The Qur’an is from God and cannot be made
|First answer: verses 45-47|
Disbelievers will be inflicted with punishment sooner than they think
|Second issue: verses 59-70|
Not following divine signs leads to deviation
|Second answer: verses 7-10|
Disbelief about the Judgement leads to human's destination in the hell
|Second answer: verses 18-19|
Your idol-worshipping creed is wrong and should be changed
|Second answer: verses 21-23|
Polytheists do trickery about divine signs
|Second answer: verses 38-39|
If you can, bring one sura like those in the Qur'an
|Second answer: verses 48-52|
The time of the punishment is in the hand of God
|Third issue: verses 71-93|
Destiny of following divine signs and opposing them
|Third answer: verses 11-14|
Certainty of disbeliever's punishment although they are ignorant about it
|Third answer: verses 24-25|
Signs of God are clear for thinkers
|Third answer: verses 40-44|
Mischief-makers cannot recognize the truth
|Third answer: verses 53-56|
The promise of punishing disbelievers is true and no one can prevent it
|Fourth issue: verses 94-100|
God's precedence regarding humans coming to believe
|Fourth answer: verses 26-36|
Warning polytheists and rejecters of divine signs
|Fifth issue: verses 101-109|
Perfecting the arguments by the Prophet (s) for rejecters of the Qur’an
Stories and Historical Narrations
- Story of Prophet Noah (a): mission, Noah's flood (Verses 71 – 72)
- Story of Prophet Moses (a): Inviting Pharaoh, standing against magicians, accommodating Israelites in Egypt, crossing the sea and drowning of the people of Pharaoh (verses 75 – 92)
- Story of Prophet Yunus (a): Lifting punishment from the people of Yunus (verse 98)
Occasions of Revelation of Some Verses
- Verse two
|— Qur'an, 10:2|
About the occasion of revelation of this verse, Ibn Abbas said, "when Muhammad (s) was chosen as the Prophet, disbelievers rejected him and said that God is too great to send a human like Muhammad (s) as the Prophet and God sent this verse as an answer to them."
- Verse fifteen
|— Qur'an, 10:15|
In verse fifteen of Sura Yunus, it is mentioned that when the Prophet (s) recited the Qur'an for people, they did not think they would meet God, so they said, "Bring a Qur'an other than this, or alter it." The Prophet (s) answered them, "I may not alter it of my own accord. I follow only what is revealed to me. Indeed, should I disobey my Lord, I fear the punishment of a tremendous day." In Majma' al-bayan, it is mentioned that this verse was revealed when people such as Abd Allah b. Abi Umayya al-Makhzumi, Walid b. Mughayra, Mukraz b. Hafs and Amr b. Abd Allah told the Prophet (s), "bring us a Qur'an which does not ask us to abandon worshipping Lat, Uzza, Manat and Hubal (i.e. abandon idol-worshipping)."
- Verse ten
|— Qur'an, 10:10|
This verse is used at the end of sermons and statements, but the word "da'wahum" دَعْواهُمْ (their concluding call) is changed to "our concluding call".
- Verse thirty eight
|— Qur'an, 10:38|
In five verses of the Qur'an, God proposed Tahaddi (challenge) with the rejecters of the Prophet (s) and verse thirty eight of Sura Yunus is one of those verses. Tahaddi means calling the rejecters of the prophethood to bring something similar to the miracles of the Prophet (s). Tahaddi (in this verse and other verses) is a proof for the miracle nature of the Qur'an and also the miracle nature of each sura of the Qur'an.
- Verse sixty four
|— Qur'an, 10:64|
In this verse, God gives general good news to His God-wary servants that will definitely happen; but, the verse does not mention whether it will happen in this world or in the hereafter.
Verses of Ruling
|— Qur'an, 10:36|
This verse is used a lot in the discipline of the principles of jurisprudence. In this discipline, there is a discussion about acting according to "al-zann" (conjecture). Although in this verse, God has forbidden relying on conjecture, scholars of the principles of jurisprudence have tried to say that this verse does not consider all conjectural approaches, but rather cases such as sole report and the appearance of the verses and hadiths are proofs for us.
Merits and Benefits
About the merits of this sura, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura Yunus, God will give him rewards ten times of those who accepted or rejected Prophet Yunus (a) and those who were drowned together with Pharaoh. Also, it is transmitted from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that whoever recites Sura Yunus (once) in two or three months, there is no fear about him being among the ignorant, and on the Day of Judgement, he will be among the close ones [to God].
- ↑ Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 8, p. 212.
- ↑ Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 5, p. 131.
- ↑ Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 166.
- ↑ These suras come after the seven long ones till the end of Surah al-Sajda. These suras are named al-Mi'in (as it translates to one hundred) since the number of verses of these chapters are around one hundred
- ↑ Khurramshāhī, "Sura-yi Yunus", vol. 2, p. 1239.
- ↑ Ṣafawī, "Sura-yi Yunus", p. 841.
- ↑ Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 8, p. 212.
- ↑ Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- ↑ Wāḥidī, Asbāb nuzūl al-Qurān, p. 270.
- ↑ Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 5, p. 17; Wāḥidī, Asbāb nuzūl al-Qurān, p. 270.
- ↑ Qāḍīzāda, Barrasī-yi seyr-i nuzūlī-yi taḥaddī dar ayāt-i Qur'ān, p. 200.
- ↑ Sulṭānī Babrāmī, Rāz-i taḥaddīhā-yi Qur'ān az manzar-i ostād Miṣbāḥ, p. 87.
- ↑ Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 8, p. 289.
- ↑ Final Declaration of Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom (Persian)
- ↑ Fayḍ Nasab, Ayāt al-aḥkām fī al-turāth al-Imām Khomeinī, p. 617-620.
- ↑ Kaf'amī, al-Miṣbāḥ, p. 440.
- ↑ Ayyāshī, Tafsīr al-ʿayyāshī , vol. 2, p. 119.
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