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Zuhr Prayer

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Ẓuhr prayer (Arabic: صلاة الظهر) is among daily prayers in four rak'as and it can be performed since the beginning of the time for zuhr prayer until there is left to sunset the time enough for performing 'Asr prayer.

Description

Zuhr prayer has four rak'as,[1] on the first rak'a of which after mentioning the intention[2] and saying takbirat al-ihram,[3] Sura al-Fatiha and another sura (not having an obligatory sajda) usually Sura al-Ikhlas is recited[4] and then one ruku'[5] and two sajdas are performed.[6] Then, the person stands up for the second rak'a[7] and continues by reciting Sura al-Fatiha and another sura and performing ruku' and sajda. Then, tashahhud is recited[8] in sitting position and in the third and fourth rak'as, tasbihat al-arba'a or Sura al-Fatiha is recited[9] and one ruku' and two sajdas are performed.

At the end, tashahhud and salam are recited.[10]

Time

The time for performing zuhr prayer begins after Adhan of zuhr (which is the beginning of the time for zuhr prayer) until the beginning of the special time for 'Asr prayer (about four minutes to sunset). This time is divided into the special time for Zuhr prayer and the time common between zuhr and 'Asr prayers.[11]

Adhan of zuhr (which is the beginning of the time for zuhr prayer) is when the shadow of a Shakhis (a wooden stick, pole, or anything similar to it, pierced upright in the ground to determine the time of zuhr)[12] either completely goes away and appears again or reaches its shortest length and again begins to grow.[13]

Special Time

The "special time" for zuhr prayer is from the beginning of the time for zuhr prayer[14] until the end of the time enough for performing a four-rak'a prayer and in this time, 'Asr prayer cannot be performed intentionally.

Common Time

By ending the special time for zuhr prayer, the common time for zuhr and 'Asr prayers begins.[15]

Importance

In the Qur'an, it is ordered to establish and observe daily prayers, and zuhr prayer has been distinctively emphasized, "be watchful of your prayers, and [especially] the middle prayer, and stand in obedience to Allah."[16] Exegetes of the Qur'an, have interpreted "the middle prayer" (Arabic:الصلاة الوسطی) as zuhr prayer according to hadiths.[17]

Nafila of Zuhr Prayer

Nafila of zuhr prayer has eight rak'as and is recommended to be performed before zuhr prayer and its time is from the beginning adhan of zuhr until the length of the shadow of shakhis reaches two seventh of the length of shakhis.[18]

Some Rulings

Friday prayer: On Fridays, Friday prayer is performed instead of zuhr prayer.[19]

Traveler's prayer: One who is considered a traveler in rulings of jurisprudence, shall perform zuhr prayer in qasr (short) form.[20]

If someone delays the performance of zuhr prayer until the special time of 'Asr prayer, needs to perform zuhr as Qada' out of the time.[21]

If someone unintentionally performs zuhr or 'Asr prayer in the special time of the other, his prayer is correct.[22]

It is obligatory to recite Sura al-Ikhlas and the other sura for zuhr prayer in a unvoiced manner.[23].[24]

Notes

  1. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, daily prayer section.
  2. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 943.
  3. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 948.
  4. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 978.
  5. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 1022.
  6. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 1045.
  7. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 958.
  8. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 1100.
  9. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 1005.
  10. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 1105.
  11. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 731.
  12. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 730.
  13. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 729.
  14. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 731.
  15. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 731.
  16. Qur'an 2: 238.
  17. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, al-Mīzān, vol. 2, p. 365.
  18. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 768.
  19. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 733.
  20. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 728.
  21. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 731.
  22. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 731.
  23. Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 992.
  24. Ḥakīm, Mustamsak al-ʿUrwat al-wuthqā, vol. 6, p. 202; Khomeinī, Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, issue 995.

References

  • Ḥakīm, Muḥsin. Mustamsak al-ʿUrwat al-wuthqā. Qom: Manshūrāt Maktabat Āyatullāh Marʿashī al-Najafī, 1404 AH.
  • Khomeinī, Sayyid Rūḥ Allāh. Risāla tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Tehran: Markaz-i Nashr-i Farhangī Rajāʾ, [n.d].