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Performing two prayers together or Jamʿ bayn al-ṣalātayn (Arabic: جمع بین الصلاتین) is performing zuhr and 'asr prayers together in the time common to performing both prayers or performing maghrib and 'isha prayers together in the time common to performing both prayers.
Different works have been written about performing two prayers together, including al-Jam' bay al-salatayn 'ala daw' al-Kitab wa al-Sunna (Performing two prayers together on the light of Qur'an and Sunna) by Ja'far Subhani.
Performing two prayers together is mentioned in jurisprudence to refer to performing zuhr and 'asr prayers together or maghrib and 'isha prayers together according to Shi'a school at any time during the time common to performing both prayers or according to Sunni school in a time specific to another prayer. Shia Muslim usually perform zuhr and 'asr prayers together and also maghrib and 'isha prayers together and Sunnis perform them separately.
Reason for Lawfulness
According to Shahid al-Awwal, performing two prayers together is permissible in the views of Shi'a jurists; because, based on hadiths, the Prophet (s) and infallible Imams (a) performed obligatory daily prayers both together and separately in both normal conditions and extraordinary conditions (e.g. war, fear, journey, raining, etc.). The Prophet (s) mentioned the reason for performing two prayers together in normal conditions to be keeping his people from falling into trouble. However, Shi'a jurists consider the separate performance of two prayers by the Prophet (s) the reason for its recommendation and the existence of the common time for performing them.
Most Sunni jurists do not consider it permissible to perform two prayers together in normal conditions; and consider it permissible only when having excuses such as being on travel, having disease or being under the rain. They also interpret hadiths from the Prophet (s) about performing two prayers together in normal conditions to match the cases of excuses. Of course, jurists of all Islamic schools consider it permissible to perform maghrib and 'isha prayers together in the days of hajj in 'Arafat and Muzdalafa. However, unlike the jurists of the four Sunni schools who consider hajj and 'umra as the reason for the permissibility of performing two prayers together, Muhammad b. Idris al-Shafi'i considers travel as a reason for the permissibility of performing two prayers together in hajj.
The reason for the difference between the Shia and the Sunni views
The difference between the views of the Shia and the Sunnis is due to the difference between their views on the times of daily prayers. According to the Qur'an 17:78, Shia scholars believe in common time, prime time and specific time for zuhr and 'asr prayers as well as for maghrib and 'isha prayers. But Sunni scholars consider a specific time for each prayer and do not accept common time for daily prayers. Therefore, they believe that in case of performing two prayers together, one of them will be performed out of time and at the time of another prayer, while according to Shia jurists, performing a prayer is not permissible except in the specific time for another prayer and it is permissible in the common time or prime time of other prayers. Some Sunni commentators also consider the three times (morning, noon and night) to be fixed for the obligatory daily prayers.
Books have been written in Arabic and Persian about performing two prayers together, including al-Jam' bayn al-salatayn 'ala daw’ al-Kitab wa al-Sunna, by Ja'far Subhani, a Shia marja'. It was published in 2009 by Imam Sadiq (a) Institute. In this book, verses and hadiths that indicate the permissibility of performing two prayers together are mentioned.
Among other works in this regard are al-Jam' bayn al-salatayn by 'Abd al-Latif Baghdadi, al-Jam' bayn al-salatayn fi al-safar by Muqbil Wada'i, Jam' bayn al-salatayn va hudud-i an by Sayyid Muhammad Riza Mudarrisi and al-Jam' bayn al-salatayn by Najm al-Din 'Askari.
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- Jazīrī, al-Fiqh ʿalā al-madhāhib al-arbaʿa, vol. 1, p. 438.
- Subḥānī, Jamʿ bein-i du namāz az dīdgāh-i kitāb wa sunnat, p. 45.
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- Subḥānī, Jaʿfar. Jamʿ bein-i du namāz az dīdgāh-i kitāb wa sunnat (Performing two prayers together on the light of Qur'an and Sunna). Faṣlnāma-yi Fiqh-i Ahl al-Bayt, No 45, Spring 1385 Sh.