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Soil of Imam al-Husayn's (a) grave

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Soil of Imam al-Ḥusayn's (a) grave (Arabic: تربة قبر الإمام الحسين) is a soil taken from around the grave of Imam al-Husayn (a). According to hadiths, the soil has a great value and putting the forehead on it in prostration is recommended. The significance and blessings of this soil have been mentioned in various narrations. Shi'as use the soil for making turba and misbaha. Regarding the significance of the soil it has special rulings.

The area suitable for collecting the soil is mentioned differently. The closer the soil to the grave of Imam al-Husayn (a) the more its magnificence and effects.

In Narrations

Reddening of Turba

It is reported that long before the event of 'Ashura, Gabriel - or another angel - brought the Prophet (s) some soil from Karbala, and told him that it would turn the color of blood when Imam al-Husayn (a) was martyred.[1] The Prophet (s) was very touched, and gave the soil to Umm Salama, who kept it in a glass container. Imam al-Husayn (a) related the story of the soil given to Umm Salama when he arrived at Karbala.[2] According to some narrations, she told him about it when he was about to start his journey from Medina.[3]Some Shi'a narrations state that the soil was with Umm Salama until her death,[4] while others say that it was with Imam al-Baqir (a).[5]

This event has been narrated in both Shi'a and Sunni sources by numerous companions and some wives of the Prophet (s).[6].[7].[8] Due to differences in the reports regarding which angel brought the soil, some suggest that it may have occurred more than once.[9].[10] There are also explicit and implicit mentions of the event in some supplications of the Imams.[11]

Imam 'Ali's (a) Narrations

When Imam 'Ali (a) was passing Karbala before and after the battle of Siffin, he told his companions what the Prophet (s) had said about the significance of the soil of Karbala.[12] When Imam 'Ali (a) was passing the location of Imam al-Husayn (a)'s martyrdom, he cried, referred to the event of 'Ashura and mentioned the significance of the soil of Karbala.[13] In one of these accounts, Imam Ali (a) takes a handful of Karbala's soil and after smelling it says "O' soil! there will be resurrected upon you a group of people who shall enter paradise, provided therein without any reckoning."[14]

Other Narrations

Prophet Jesus (a), along with foreseeing the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a), explained the significance of the soil on which he would be martyred to his disciples.[15].[16] Imam al-Rida (a) has kissed soil of Karbala and cried.[17] The Imams have described the soil as being "mubaraka" (blessed), "tahira" (immaculate) and "miska mutabarrika" (blessed Musk).[18] Some reports mention the angels' affection towards the soil of Karbala.[19]

Effects

Healing

There is a consensus among Shi'a scholars about the permissibility of seeking healing through the soil of the grave of Imam al-Husayn (a), and many works have been produced on the subject. According to some narrations, the healing effect of the soil is conditional to believing in it or believing in the Imamate of Imam al-Husayn (a).[20] The manner of collecting and consuming the soil is also important for its effect.

Safety

It is highly recommended to carry some of the soil of Karbala with oneself, as it attracts divine blessings and keeps one secure. Imam al-Rida (a) would put a little of the soil along with anything that he wanted to carry, seemingly for the sake of security.[21]

In the Grave

It is also recommended to place some of the soil in the grave along with a deceased body as means of protection from grave sufferings.[22]

Other Effects

Soil of Karbala causes growth in sustenance, dignity and beneficial knowledge, and eliminates poverty.[23]45 There is a disagreement as to whether these effects are from consuming the soil or from carrying it.[24]

In Sujud

Soil of the Imam al-Husayn's (a) grave is the best thing to put one's forehead on in prostration to God.[25] Imam al-Sadiq (a) kept some of the soil in a yellow silk cloth, and at the time of prayer, he would put some on his sajjada (prayer mat) for sujud.[26] Performing sujud on the soil and reciting tasbih with a misbaha made of the soil causes one to have a lenient heart.[27]

The first time that the turbah made from the soil of Karbala - as it is used today for sujud - appears in historical texts, is in a letter from Imam al-Mahdi (a) in the year 308/921 in response to the questions of Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far al-Himyari. In this letter, "lawh min tin al-qabr" (a tablet made from the soil of the grave) is mentioned.[28]

Making Misbaha

According to a narration from Imam al-Sadiq (a), Lady Fatimah (a)'s misbaha was first made of a woolen thread on which knots were tied to aid in counting. When Hamza b. 'Abd al-Muttalib was martyred in the battle of Uhud, she then made a misbaha using beads made from the soil of his grave. After the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a), the use of soil from his grave was initiated. According to a narration from Imam al-Sadiq (a), the misbaha made from soil of Imam al-Husayn (a)'s grave are preferred over those made from the soil of Hamza's grave.[29]

The use of turbah and misbaha made from the soil was not common before the year 308/921, when the letter from the Imam al-Mahdi (a) to al-Himyari was released.

Jurisprudential Rulings

Due to its sanctity, there are specific jurisprudential rulings regarding Turba.

  • It is forbidden to make the soil najis. If this is done deliberately, it can be considered to be blasphemy.[30]
  • The soil that is buried with the body of a deceased person should be placed in a way that does not show disrespect to it.[31]
  • Eating the soil for the sake of healing is permissible,[32] while consuming normal soil is forbidden. The amount of the soil permissible to eat for this purpose is limited to the size of a chickpea.[33]
  • It is not permissible to consume the soil of the graves of other Imams (a). The narrations which state that this is permissible are in conflict with other narrations and are generally not accepted by the scholars.[34]

Area

According to different narrations, the area suitable for collecting the soil could be twenty cubits, twenty five cubits, seventy cubits, one mile, four miles, ten miles, one league, or five leagues from the grave of Imam al-Husayn (a). Although any of these are acceptable according to scholars, it is understood that the closer the soil is from the grave, the more its magnificence and effects.[35]

There are many rituals and prayers for collecting, consuming, and carrying the soil. These include having a ghusl, reciting some verses of the Qur'an, kissing it, and rubbing it on the eyes.[36] Although the effect of the soil does not depend on these rituals and prayers, performing them may increase the speed and power of the effect.[37]

Related Works

Hadiths related to the soil of Imam al-Husayn's (a) grave is mentioned in many hadith sources.[38] There is also some works dedicated to the merits and benefits of the soil, including:

See also

Notes

  1. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-ziyārāt, p. 59-61; Khuṣaybī, al-Hidāyat al-kubrā, p. 202-203; Abū Yaʿlā al-Mawṣilī, Musnad, vol. 6, p. 129-130; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 3, p. 108; Ibn Shajarī, Kitāb al-amālī, vol. 2, p. 82; Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī. al-Mustadrak ʿala l-ṣaḥīḥayn, vol. 5, p. 567.
  2. Ibn al-Jawzī, Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ, p. 225.
  3. Khuṣaybī, al-Hidāyat al-kubrā, p. 203; Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 165; Ibn Ḥamza, al-Thāqib fī al-manāqib, p. 330-331; Muwaḥḥid Abṭaḥī, al-Imām al-Ḥusayn fī ahādīth al-farīqayn, vol. 4, p. 218-221.
  4. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-zīyārāt, p. 60.
  5. Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 316.
  6. Ibn Ḥanbal, al-Musnad, vol. 11, p. 207-208.
  7. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 129.
  8. ʿAlawī Shajarī, Faḍl zīyārat al-Ḥusayn, p. 90-92.
  9. Baḥrānī, ʿAwālim al-ʿulūm wa al-maʿārif, vol. 17, p. 124-131.
  10. Aminī, Sīratunā wa sunnatunā, p. 53, 129.
  11. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-ziyārāt, p. 280, 282, 284, 285 and Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 98, p. 118,129.
  12. Naṣr b. Muzāḥim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 140; Ibn Saʿd, Tarjumat al-Imām al-Ḥusayn wa maqtalih, p. 48-49; Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 446; Abū Yaʿlā al-Mawṣilī, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 298; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tarjumat rayḥānat Rasūl Allāh al-Imām al-mafdī fī sabīl Allāh, p. 23.
  13. Ibn Saʿd, Tarjumat rayḥānat Rasūl Allāh al-Imām al-mafdī fī sabīl Allāh, p. 48; Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-ziyārāt, p. 72.
  14. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 44, p. 255.
  15. Ṣadūq, ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, vol. 2, p. 531-532.
  16. Ṣadrī, Khāk-i bihisht, p. 22.
  17. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 98, p. 131.
  18. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-ziyārāt, p. 267-268, 270-271; ʿUṣfurī, Aṣl, p. 16-17; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 98, p. 128-132.
  19. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-ziyārāt, p. 68; Mufīd, al-Mazār, p. 151; Ṣadrī, Khāk-i bihisht, p. 49.
  20. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 4, p. 588; ʿAlawī Shajarī, Faḍl zīyārat al-Ḥusayn, p. 91; Ṭūsī, Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid, p. 732-734; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 98, p. 118.
  21. Kalbāsī, al-ʾIstishfāʾ bi al-turbat al-sharīfat al-Ḥusaynīyya, p. 130.
  22. Ṭūsī, al-Khilāf, vol. 1, p. 706; Ḥillī, al-Muʿtabar fī sharḥ al-mūkhtaṣar, vol. 1, p. 299-300.
  23. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-ziyārāt, p. 277, 282-285; Ibn Basṭām, Ṭib al-aʾimma, p. 52; Nūrī, Mustadrak al-wasāʾil wa musṭanbit al-wasā'il, vol. 8, p. 237; Kalbāsī, al-ʾIstishfāʾ bi al-turbat al-sharīfat al-Ḥusaynīyya, p. 109.
  24. Narāqī, Mustanad al-Shīʿa fī aḥkām al-sharīa, vol. 15, p. 163; Kalbāsī, al-ʾIstishfāʾ bi al-turbat al-sharīfat al-Ḥusaynīyya, p. 67,77.
  25. Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 1, p. 268; Shahīd Awwal, al-Durūs, vol. 2, p. 26; Baḥrānī, al-Ḥadāʾiq al-nāḍira, vol. 7, p. 260; Narāqī, Mustanad al-Shīʿa fī aḥkām al-sharīa, vol. 5, p. 266.
  26. Ṭūsī, Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid, p. 733; Daylamī, Irshād al-qulūb, vol. 1, p. 115; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 82, p. 153.
  27. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 2, p. 177.
  28. Mufīd, al-Mazār, p. 150-151; Ṭabrisī, Makārim al-akhlāq, p. 281; Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Madarik al-ahkam, vol. 6, p. 45,55; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 82, p. 333, 340.
  29. Mufīd, al-Irshād, p. 150-151.
  30. Ḥillī, Mukhtalaf al-Shīʿa fī aḥkām al-sharīʿa, vol. 1, p. 267; Ḥillī, Tadhkirat al-fuqahāʾ, vol. 1, p. 127; Najafī, Jawāhir al-kalām, vol. 8, p. 335; Kāshif al-ghatā, al-Arḍ wa al-turba al-Ḥusaynīyya, p. 175.
  31. Ṭabāṭabāʾī Yazdī, al-ʿUrwat al-wuthqā, vol. 1, p. 315; Hakim, Mustamsak al-ʿUrwat al-wuthqā, vol. 4, p. 199.
  32. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 4, p. 588; Ibn al-Barrāj, al-Muhadhdhab, vol. 2, p. 433; Ḥillī, Sharāʾiʿ al-Islām, vol. 3, p. 176; Narāqī, Mustanad al-Shīʿa fī aḥkām al-sharīa, vol. 15, p. 162; Kalbāsī, al-ʾIstishfāʾ bi al-turbat al-sharīfat al-Ḥusaynīyya, p. 28-30.
  33. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 6, p. 378; Ibn al-Barrāj, al-Muhadhdhab, vol. 2, p. 429-430; Ḥillī, Sharāʾiʿ al-Islām, vol. 3, p. 176; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 57, p. 161-162; Kalbāsī, al-ʾIstishfāʾ bi al-turbat al-sharīfat al-Ḥusaynīyya, p. 45-47.
  34. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-ziyārāt, p. 280-281; Ṣadūq, ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, vol. 1, p. 104; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 57, p. 156.
  35. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 6, p. 71-72; Ṭūsī, Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid, p. 731-732; Shahīd Thānī, Rawḍa al-bahīyya, vol. 7, p. 327; Muqaddas Ardibīlī, Majmaʿ al-fāida wa al-burhān, vol. 2, p. 313; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 2, p. 177; Narāqī, Mustanad al-Shīʿa fī aḥkām al-sharīa, vol. 15, p. 165-167.
  36. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-ziyārāt, chapter 93,94; Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 318; Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Amān, p. 47; Ibn Ṭāwūs, Falāḥ al-sāʾil, p. 62.
  37. Muqaddas Ardibīlī, Majmaʿ al-fāida wa al-burhān, vol. 11, p. 236.
  38. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-ziyārāt, chapters 17,91,95.

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