Priority: b, Quality: b

Sahw Prostration

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search

Furu' al-Din

Prayer
Wajib: Daily PrayersEssentials of PrayerFriday PrayerEid PrayerAl-Ayat PrayerFuneral PrayerIstijari Prayer

Mustahab: Night PrayerGhufayla PrayerJa'far al-Tayyar Prayer


Other types of worship
FastingKhumsZakatHajjJihadEnjoining the goodForbidding the evilTawalliTabarri


Rulings on Tahara
Wudu'GhuslTayammumNajisMutahhiratTadhkiyaDhabh


Civil Law
WikalaWasiyyaDimanKifalaIrth


Family Law
MarriageTemporary marriagePolygamyDivorceMahrBreastfeedingIntercourseSexual gratificationAdopted childFormula for marriage


Criminal Law
JudgmentDiyatHududQisasTa'zirHoarding


Economic Laws
Bay'IjaraQardRibaMajhul al-MalikShari'a payments


Other Laws
HijabSadaqaNadhrTaqlidFoods and drinksWaqf


See also
FiqhRulings of Shari'aManual of Islamic lawPubertyWajibHaramMustahabMubahMakruh

Sahw Prostration (Arabic: سجود السهو, sujūd al-sahw) or prostration of inadvertence refers to two prostrations which are performed after the end of the prayer as a compensation for some mistakes during the prayer. Sahw Prostration should be performed immediately after taslim of the prayer and after the second prostration, performing tashahhud and taslim is necessary. Dhikr of Sahw Prostration is different from the dhikr in prostrations in the prayer.

Jurists have different views regarding what entails obligatory Sahw Prostration . Speaking during the prayer inadvertently, forgetting one prostration during the prayer and saying taslim inadvertently where it should not be said are among cases when performing Sahw Prostration becomes obligatory.

Definition

According to the fatwa of jurists, to make up for some mistakes during the prayer, the praying person should perform two prostrations which are called Sahw Prostration (prostration for inadvertent mistakes)[1]. Shi'a jurists have discussed about Sahw Prostration and its rulings under the rulings of Sahw (inadvertent mistakes) and doubts of prayer[2].

Method

The method of performing Sahw Prostration is that immediately after the end of the prayer, the praying person should perform two prostrations with the intention of Sahw Prostration in which special dhikr should be said and after the second prostration, he should recite tashahhud and taslim again[3]. Most Shi'a jurists believe that Sahw Prostration does not begin with takbir (saying "Allah-u Akbar")[4], but, according to al-Shaykh al-Tusi's fatwa, one should say takbir before performing Sahw Prostration [5]. Muhammad Hasan al-Najafi the author of Jawahir al-kalam considered al-Shaykh al-Tusi's view weak[6] and saying takbir is recommended[7].

Dhikr of Sahw Prostration

Dhikr of Sahw Prostration is different from dhikr of prostrations in daily prayers. In Sahw Prostration, one of the following dhikrs are recited:

dhikr transliteration
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ وَ بِاللَّـهِ، اَلسَّلامُ عَلَیكَ اَیهَا النَّبِی وَ رَحْمَةُ اللَّـهِ وَ بَرَکاتُهُ
bismillāh wa billāh, Assalām-u ʿalayk-a ayyu-ha l-nabī wa raḥmatullāh wa barakāt-uh
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ وَ بِاللَّـهِ، اَللَّـهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَی مُحَمَّدٍ و آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
bismillāh wa billāh, Allāh-umma ṣalli ʿalā Muḥammad wa Āl-i Muḥammad [8]
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ وَ بِاللَّـهِ وَ صَلَّی اللَّـهُ عَلَی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ
bismillāh wa billāh wa ṣall-a ṣallallāh-u ʿalā Muḥammad wa Āl-ih[9]

Time

According to the fatwa of most Shi'a jurists, the time of Sahw Prostration is after taslim of the prayer. According to al-Shaykh al-Tusi, some Twelver jurists consider the time of Sahw Prostration before taslim of the prayer if Sahw Prostration is due to a defect (missing something from the elements of the prayer)[10]. Ibn al-Junayd al-Iskafi, the jurist of the fourth/tenth century accepted this view[11].

Cases of Obligation

Shi'a jurists have different views about the cases when Sahw Prostration becomes obligatory[12]. With regards to different fatwas, performing Sahw Prostration is obligatory in four, five or six cases[13]. According to the view of most scholars, Sahw Prostration is obligatory or obligatory caution, in the following five cases:

  • Speaking inadvertently during the prayer.
  • Having doubt in four-rak'a prayer whether four or five rak'a is performed.
  • Saying taslim inadvertently when it should not be said. For example, if in the second rak'a of a four rak'a prayer, the praying person also recites Salam after Tashahhud by mistake.

Some jurists added cases when the praying person inadvertently sits when he should stand or stands when he should sit to the above cases[15]. According to al-Shaykh al-Tusi, some Twelver jurists consider Sahw Prostration obligatory in every case when anything is added or missed in the prayer (other than the foundational elements)[16]. Al-Allama al-Hilli accepted this view[17]. Some religious authorities have considered this as recommended[18].

Rules

  • In Sahw Prostration, all seven parts of body (known in fiqh as mawadi' al-sujud, lit. the places of sujud) should be placed on the ground and it is not permissible to lift them up.[19].
  • There is a disagreement among jurists whether purity and facing toward the qibla are among the requirements of Sahw Prostration [20].
  • Sahw Prostration is obligatory to be performed immediately; meaning that immediately after the end of the prayer[22], it has to be performed. But, a person who has forgotten to perform Sahw Prostration , does not have to perform the prayer again; but, he only has to perform Sahw Prostration and it does not miss its obligation by passing time[23].

See Also

  • Prayer of caution

Notes

  1. Ṭūsī, al-Mabsūṭ, vol. 1, p. 123.
  2. See for instance: Ibn Idrīs al-Ḥillī, al-Sarāʾir, vol. 1, p. 257.
  3. Ṭūsī, al-Mabsūṭ, vol. 1, p. 125.
  4. Ḥillī, Qawaʿid al-aḥkām, pp. 307-308; Banī Hāshimī Khumaynī, Tawḍīh al-masāʾil marājiʿ, vol. 1, p. 674; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, p. 209; Najafī, Jawāhir al-kalām, vol. 12, p. 447.
  5. Ṭūsī, al-Mabsūṭ, vol. 1, p. 125.
  6. Najafī, Jawāhir al-kalām, vol. 12, p. 448.
  7. Najafī, Jawāhir al-kalām, vol. 12, p. 442.
  8. Ibn Idrīs al-Ḥillī, Ajwiba masāʾil wa rasāʾil, p. 174.
  9. Ḥillī, Qawaʿid al-aḥkām, p. 308; Banī Hāshimī Khumaynī, Tawḍīh al-masāʾil marājiʿ, vol. 1, pp. 674-75.
  10. Ṭūsī, al-Mabsūṭ, vol. 1, p. 125.
  11. Ibn Junayd al-Iskafī, Majmūʿa fatāwa Ibn Junayd, p. 79.
  12. Ḥillī, Mukhtalaf al-shīʿa, vol. 2, p. 423; Ṭūsī, al-Mabsūṭ, vol. 1, pp. 123-25.
  13. Ibn Idrīs al-Ḥillī, Ajwiba masāʾil wa rasāʾil, p. 173.
  14. Ṭūsī, al-Mabsūṭ, vol. 1, p. 123;Banī Hāshimī Khumaynī, Tawḍīh al-masāʾil marājiʿ, vol. 1, pp. 669-74.
  15. See: Ibn Idrīs al-Hilli, Ajwiba masāʾil wa rasāʾil, pp. 173-74; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, p. 208.
  16. Ṭūsī, al-Mabsūṭ, vol. 1, pp. 124-25.
  17. Ḥillī, Qawaʿid al-aḥkām, pp. 307-308.
  18. See: Makārim Shīrāzī, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, p. 208; Banī Hāshimī Khumaynī, Tawḍīh al-masāʾil marājiʿ, vol. 1, pp. 669-72.
  19. Ḥillī, Qawaʿid al-aḥkām, p. 308.
  20. Najafī, Jawāhir al-kalām, vol. 12, p. 449.
  21. Ṭabrisī, al-Muʾtalaf min al-mukhtalaf bayn Aʾimma al-salaf, vol. 1, p. 153.
  22. Najafī, Jawāhir al-kalām, vol. 12, p. 455.
  23. Ṭūsī, al-Mabsūṭ, vol. 1, p. 123;Banī Hāshimī Khumaynī, Tawḍīh al-masāʾil marājiʿ, vol. 1, p. 673.

References

  • Banī Hāshimī Khumaynī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥasan. Tawḍīh al-masāʾil marājiʿ. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1383 Sh.
  • Ḥillī, al-Ḥasan b. Yūsuf al-. Mukhtalaf al-shīʿa fī aḥkām al-sharīʿa. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1413 AH.
  • Ḥillī, al-Ḥasan b. Yūsuf al-. Qawaʿid al-aḥkām fī maʿrifat al-ḥalāl wa l-ḥarām. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1413 AH.
  • Ḥillī, Ibn Idrīs al-. Ajwiba masāʾil wa rasāʾil fī mukhtalaf funūn al-maʿrifa. Edited by Sayyid Muḥammad Mahdi Musawi al-Khirsan. Qom: Dalīl-e Mā, 1429 AH.
  • Ḥillī, Ibn Idrīs al-. Al-Sarāʾir al-ḥāwi li-taḥrīr al-fatāwa. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1410 AH.
  • Ibn Junayd al-Iskafī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad. Majmūʿat fatāwa Ibn Junayd. Edited by Ali Panah Ishtihardi. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1416 AH.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil. Qom: Intishārat-i Imam ʿAli b. Abī Ṭālib, 1395 Sh.
  • Muḥaqqiq al-Ḥillī, Jaʿfar b. Husayn al-. Al-Mukhtaṣar al-Nāfiʿ fī fiqh al-imāmiyya. Qom: Muʾassisa al-Maṭbūʿāt al-Dīnīyya, 1418 AH.
  • Najafī, Muḥammad al-Ḥasan al-. Jawāhir al-kalām fī sharḥ sharāʾiʿ al-Islām. Edited by ʿAbbās Qūchānī & ʿAlī Ākhūndī. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1404 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Muʾtalaf min al-mukhtalaf bayn Aʾimma al-salaf. Edited by Mudirshana et al. Mashhad: Majmaʿ al-Buhūth al-Islāmiyya, 1410 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Mabsūṭ fī fiqh al-imāmīyya. Edited by Sayyid Muḥammad Taqi Kashfi. Tehran: al-Maktabat al-Murtaḍawīyya li-Ihyāʾ al-Āthār al-Ja'fariyya, 1387 AH.