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Furu' al-Din

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Shia Islam

Furu' al-Din

Prayer
Wajib: Daily PrayersEssentials of PrayerFriday PrayerEid PrayerAl-Ayat PrayerFuneral PrayerIstijari Prayer

Mustahab: Night PrayerGhufayla PrayerJa'far al-Tayyar Prayer


Other types of worship
FastingKhumsZakatHajjJihadEnjoining the goodForbidding the evilTawalliTabarri


Rulings on Tahara
Wudu'GhuslTayammumNajisMutahhiratTadhkiyaDhabh


Civil Law
WikalaWasiyyaDimanKifalaIrth


Family Law
MarriageTemporary marriagePolygamyDivorceMahrBreastfeedingIntercourseSexual gratificationAdopted childFormula for marriage


Criminal Law
JudgmentDiyatHududQisasTa'zirHoarding


Economic Laws
Bay'IjaraQardRibaMajhul al-MalikShari'a payments


Other Laws
HijabSadaqaNadhrTaqlidFoods and drinksWaqf


See also
FiqhRulings of Shari'aManual of Islamic lawPubertyWajibHaramMustahabMubahMakruh

Furūʿ al-dīn (Arabic: فروع الدين) or ancillaries of the religion, are practical rulings of Islam that every Muslim has an obligation to comply with. They are contrasted to usul al-din, which refers to fundamental religious beliefs, believing in which is a condition for qualifying as a Muslim.

According to Imami Shiism, furu' al-din consist in: Prayer, Fasting, Hajj, Zakat, Khums, Jihad, Enjoining the good, Forbidding the evil, Tawalli, Tabarri.

Furu' al-din are obtained from Four Sources—the Qur'an, hadiths from the Prophet (s) and the Imams (a), the reason, and consensus—with the methods of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). According to faqihs (jurisprudents), it is obligatory to learn parts of furu' al-din with which we usually deal.

Definition

Muslim scholars have categorized religious doctrines into principles (usul al-din) and ancillaries (furu' al-din):[1]

  • Usul al-din include fundamental religious beliefs believing in which is required for counting as a

Muslim.[2]

  • Furu' al-din refer to Islamic sharia laws concerning different issues, including worships and

transactions.[3] In other words, furu' al-din consist in obligations every Muslim should comply with.[4]

Origin of the Categorization

The categorization of religious doctrines into principles and ancillaries (usul al-din and furu' al-din) cannot be found in the Qur'an or Shiite and Sunni hadiths.[5] The terms, "usul al-din" and "furu' al-din", were allegedly used in this meaning by theologians.[6]

Notwithstanding this, some hadiths involve references to the fact that some Islamic doctrines are more fundamental than others.[7] For instance, there is a hadith from Imam al-Baqir (a) according to which Islam is based on five things: prayer, zakat, fast, hajj, and wilaya, where wilaya is more virtuous than others.[8] There is also a hadith in which Imam al-Sadiq (a) was asked about the pillars of Islam. He replied by referring to "the acknowledgement of monotheism, the belief in the prophethood of the Prophet (s), acceptance of what he brought on behalf of God, acceptance of zakat, and acceptance of the wilaya of the progeny of Muhammad (s).[9]

Ancillaries of the Faith

According to what has become more commonly known, furu' al-din i.e. ancillaries of the faith include the following:[10]

Obligation of Learning

According to faqihs, it is obligatory to learn parts of furu' al-din with which Muslims usually deal, such as prayer, fast, khums, and zakat.[11] In contrast with usul al-din in which certainty is required,[12] a conjecture (zann) is sufficient in the case of furu' al-din.[13] However, the conjectures that are sufficient in this case are restricted to those that are reliable in the religion.[14]

According to marja's, it is obligatory for Muslims to be either,

  • Mujtahids with respect to furu' al-din, in which case they can obtain the rulings on the basis of reliable evidence, or
  • Followers of a mujtahid, or
  • Practitioners of ihtiyat (precaution), that is, they may as well act in such ways that assure the

discharge of the jurisprudential obligation. For example, if some marja's take an action to be obligatory and others take it to be supererogatory, then one should do that action. Also, if some people take an action to be forbidden and others do not, then one should abstain from doing that action.[15]

Method of Inference

Furu' al-din are inferred from four sources: the Qur'an, hadiths from the Prophet (s) and Imams (a), the reason, and consensus. These are referred to as the Four Sources.[16] The discipline of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) is concerned with the inference of furu' al-din from these sources.[17] It draws on other disciplines, such as Arabic literature, the Quranic exegesis, hadith, rijal, and in particular, usul al-fiqh (principles of jurisprudence), to infer sharia laws from the Four Sources.[18] Usul al-fiqh provides fiqh with correct ways of inferring sharia laws.[19]

Notes

  1. ʿAlawī, ʿAqāʾid al-Muʾminīn, 1411 AH, p. 13.
  2. Guzashta, "Uṣūl-i dīn", p. 282.
  3. Miṣbāḥ Yazdī, Āmūzish-i ʿaqāyid, 1384 Sh, p. 12. ʿAlawī, ʿAqāʾid al-Muʾminīn, 1411 AH, p. 13.
  4. Muʾassisa-yi Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Fiqh-i Islāmī, Farhang-i fiqh, 1392 Sh, p. 689.
  5. Guzashta, "Uṣūl-i dīn", p. 282.
  6. Guzashta, "Uṣūl-i dīn", p. 282.
  7. Guzashta, "Uṣūl-i dīn", p. 282.
  8. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, 1407 AH, vol. 2, p. 18.
  9. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, 1407 AH, vol. 2, p. 19-20.
  10. Muṭahharī, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, 1390 Sh, vol. 26, p. 257. ʿAlawī, ʿAqāʾid al-Muʾminīn, 1411 AH, p. 12.
  11. Muʾassisa-yi Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Fiqh-i Islāmī, Farhang-i fiqh, 1392 Sh, p. 689.
  12. Imām Khomeini, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, 1392 Sh, vol. 1, p. 12-13.
  13. Muʾassisa-yi Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Fiqh-i Islāmī, Farhang-i fiqh, 1392 Sh, p. 689.
  14. Muʾassisa-yi Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Fiqh-i Islāmī, Farhang-i fiqh, 1392 Sh, p. 689-690.
  15. Imām Khomeini, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, 1392 Sh, vol. 1, p. 11-13.
  16. Muṭahharī, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, 1390 Sh, vol. 20, p. 29.
  17. Muṭahharī, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, 1390 Sh, vol. 20, p. 29.
  18. Muṭahharī, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, 1390 Sh, vol. 20, p. 27.
  19. Muṭahharī, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, 1390 Sh, vol. 20, p. 29.

References

  • ʿAlawī, ʿAdil. ʿAqāʾid al-Muʾminīn. Qom, Dār al-Dhakhāʾir, 1411 AH.
  • Guzashta, Nāṣir. "Uṣūl-i dīn", Dānishnāma-yi jahān-i Islām, vol. 1. Tehran, Muʾassisat Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif al-Fiqh al-Islāmī, 1374 Sh.
  • Imām Khomeini, Sayyid Rūh Allāh. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil. Qom, Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1392 Sh.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb. Al-Kāfī. Tehran, Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407 AH.
  • Miṣbāḥ Yazdī, Muḥammad Taqī. Āmūzish-i ʿaqāyid. Tehran, Amīr Kabīr, 1384 Sh.
  • Muʾassisa-yi Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Fiqh-i Islāmī, Farhang-i fiqh muṭābiq-i madhhab-i Ahl-i Bayt ʿalayhim al-salām. 1392 Sh,
  • Muṭahharī, Murtaḍā. Majmūʿa-yi āthār. Tehran, Ṣadrā, 1390 Sh.