Khuzayma b. Thabit
|Khuzayma b. Thabit|
|Full Name||Khuzayma b. Thabit b. Fakih b. Tha'laba al-Ansari|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina, Kufa|
|Cause of Death/Martyrdom||He was martyred in the Battle of Siffin|
|Presence at Ghazwas||Badr, Uhud, Muta, Jamal, Siffin|
|Other Activities||Opposing with first three caliphs, participating in the Battle of Jamal and Battle of Siffin|
Khuzayma b. Thābit b. Fākih b. Thaʿlaba b. Sāʿida al-Anṣārī (Arabic: خُزَیمَة بن ثابِت بن فاکه بن ثَعْلَبَة بن ساعدة الأنصاري) was one of the Prophet's (s) companion and Imam 'Ali's friend. He was pioneer among the people of his tribe to convert to Islam and became the companion of the Prophet (s). He was martyred in the Battle of Siffin.
- 1 Name, Lineage, and Teknonym
- 2 Becoming a Muslim
- 3 Title
- 4 At the Time of the Prophet (s)
- 5 Refusing to Accept Caliphate of the First Caliph
- 6 At the time of Imam 'Ali (a)
- 7 Kuzayma's Testimony about 'Ammar b. Yasir's Murder by a Group of Oppressors
- 8 Transmitter of Hadiths
- 9 Composing Poems for Praising 'Ali (a)
- 10 Children of Khuzayma
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
Name, Lineage, and Teknonym
Khuzayma b. Thabit b. Fakih b. Tha'laba b. Sa'ida al-Ansari was from Medina, the tribe of Aws, Banu Khatma family. He was one of the great companions of the Prophet (s) and a famous friend of Imam 'Ali (a).
Becoming a Muslim
There are disagreement about the time that he became Muslim. Some believe he became Muslim before the Battle of Badr (2 AH/623) and others say he became Muslim between the battles of Badr (2 AH/623) and Uhud (3 AH/624). After converting to Islam, by cooperating 'Umayr b. 'Uday b. Kharsha, he became agent to break the idols of his tribe. Save for the Battle of Badr, he participated in all ghazwas (battles) and also the Battle of Muta.
Khuzayma b. Thabit is known as Dhu al-Shahadatayn; because once he testified due to a request for verification of a dealing and the Prophet (s) regarded it as the testimonies of two just witnesses which it apparently was due to Khuzayma's strong faith in the Prophet (s) and Islam. It brought him a great honor and the people of Medina, from both tribes of Aws and Khazraj, felt proud of him. The people of Ows said, "The one whose testimony was regarded as two testimonies by the Prophet (s) is one of us". His testimony was about the horse of the Prophet (s) called Murtajiz. The Prophet (s) had bought it from an Arab, but he denied the dealing. Khuzayma testified for the Prophet (s). The Prophet (s) asked him, "How do you testify while you were not with us?" Khuzayma answered, "I am sure that you tell nothing but the truth. How can we affirm you regarding bringing a new religion, while we do not affirm your claim about buying a horse?" Then, the Prophet (s) said, "Khuzayma's testimony for or against a person is a proof".
At the Time of the Prophet (s)
Khuzayma b. Thabit fought in the Battle of Uhud and the battles after it. However, the authors of maghazi [accounts of the Prophet's raids during his lifetime] have not mentioned his name in the list of the Prophet's (s) companion who fought in the Battle of Uhud, and it is said that he fought in the battles after the Battle of Uhud.13 At the time of the Muslim conquest of Mecca, Khuzayma b. Thabit carried the flag of Banu Khatma.
Refusing to Accept Caliphate of the First Caliph
- Main article: Incident of Saqifa
Some sources have reported about the presence of Khuzayma in Saqifa Bani Sa'ida. According to them he was the first lecturer in that association and said some virtues of Helpers, then asked others to pay allegiance with some one as caliph from whom Quraysh have obedience and he do not harm Helpers. Similar to some other companions of the Prophet (s), Khuzayma b. Thabit together with the majority of Banu Hashim, acknowledged caliphate of 'Ali (a) after the Prophet (s), and refused to accept caliphate of Abu Bakr. He debated with Abu Bakr in this regard and testified that the Prophet (s) on Ghadir Khum had said, "Whoever I am his master and authority, this 'Ali (a) will be his master and authority" and testified that 'Ali (a) was the Prophet's (s) brother and successor.
The name of Khuzayma has been mentioned among the names of 12 people who refused to accept caliphate of Abu Bakr; and each of them, in some way, wanted Abu Bakr to relinquish caliphate.
His words with Abu Bakr has been recorded as follows: "O Abu Bakr! Do you know that the Prophet (s) accepted my testimony as two testimonies?" Abu Bakr answered, "Yes" Khuzayma said, "So, I swear by God that I heard the Prophet (s) saying, 'My Ahl al-Bayt (a) make the distinction between the truth and the falsehood; and they are the leaders to be followed'."
There is no report about him in the events of the time of the second and third caliphs.
At the time of Imam 'Ali (a)
regarding the process of paying allegiance with 'Ali (a), he introduced 'Ali (a) as the most appropriate one for caliphate, the most faithful man, the best knowing God, the closest one towards the Prophet (s). He also composed some poetry in this regard.
In the Battle of Jamal
Khuzayma did an important role in the Battle of Jamal. Wearing yellow turban and white clothes, held the flag of the army, he led one thousand troopers. when Imam 'Ali (a) was blaming the heads of sedition (Zubayr, Talha, Aisha, Ya'la b. Umayya), Khuzayma arose and called them as guilty of perjury, perfidious and lower than 'Ali (a), then he composed a poetry in this regard. Reciting paean verses, he also showed gallantry when he fought against the the enemy.
In the Battle of Siffin and Martyrdom
In the Battle of Siffin, Khuzayma was one of the commanders of Imam's army. Although at that time he was an old man, with a firm belief in Imam Ali's (a) truthfulness, he fiercely fought against Mu'awiya's army and Mu'awiya's deception did not weaken him. In the Battle of Siffin, when 'Ammar b. Yasir was martyred, Khuzayma b. Thabit went into his tent, performed his ritual bath for martyrdom. Then, he went to the battlefield and fought until he was martyred.
Kuzayma's Testimony about 'Ammar b. Yasir's Murder by a Group of Oppressors
Khuzayma b. Thabit has quoted from the Prophet (s) that 'Ammar b. Yasir would be killed by a group of oppressors. Khuzayma was martyred in 37 AH/657 in a stage of Battle of Siffin when the fight became very fierce and has become known as Yawm Waq'a al-Khamis. Imam 'Ali (a) has mentioned Khuzayma b. Thabit as one of the martyrs of Siffin and one of his brothers who remained steadfast in the right way. Therefore, according to previously mentioned traditions, this matter that Khuzayma b. Thabit did not fight in the battles of Jamal and Siffin until 'Ammar was martyred, cannot be true.
Some historical narrators believe that Khuzayma b. Thabit passed away at the time of 'Uthman and the one who attended the Battle of Siffin was a person with the same name. However, according to general and specific traditions, martyrdom of Khuzayma b. Thabit in Siffin has been related by successive transmitters and denial of Khuzayma's martyrdom in Siffin is actually an attempt by the enemies to claim that those who struggled in the Battle of Badr did not side with 'Ali (a) in Siffin. Moreover, most of the historians such as Khatib Baghdadi and Ibn Abi al-Hadid have said that Dhu al-Shahadatayn was Khuzayma b. Thabit, and according to genealogical references, there was no other one called Khuzayma b. Thabit among Ansar. The belief that Khuzayma is someone other than Dhu al-Shahadatayn is actually originated from the bias propagated by Umayyads.
Transmitter of Hadiths
- 'Umara (his son)
- Jabir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansari
- 'Umara b. 'Uthman b. Hanif
- 'Amr b. Maymun
- Ibrahim b. Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas
- Abu 'Abd Allah al-Jadali
- 'Abd Allah b. Yazid al-Khatmi
- 'Ata' b. Yasar
In the collections of hadiths, 38 hadiths from the Prophet (s) have been quoted by Khuzayma b. Thabit.
Composing Poems for Praising 'Ali (a)
Khuzamah b. Thabit had a talent for composing poems and a large number of poems have been attributed to him. Some have counted him among Shi'a poets. Khuzayma, who was present in the events such as Saqifa Bani Sa'ida, Jamal, and Siffin, has composed many poems about Imam 'Ali (a) in which he has praised and supported him.
Children of Khuzayma
Khuzayma had two wives:
- Jamila bt. Zayd b. Khalid from the family of Banu Qawqal;
- Safiyya bt. 'Amir from the family of Banu Khatma
His sons, 'Abd al-Rahman and 'Abd Allah, were born from Jamila and 'Umara was born from Safiyya.
It is mentioned that his daughter, Dubay'a or Na'ima, composed an elegy about his father after he martyred. In his life story, such a daughter was not be mentioned, but 'Umara's daughter was called Na'ima.
The famous historians of 6th/12th century (499-565/1105-1169), Ibn Funduq Ya'la b. Zayd al-Tabari, was of descendant of Khuzayma.
The grave of Khuzayma is not known in Siffin.
- Ibn Kalbī, Jumhurat al-nasab, p. 642-643; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 133; Nawawī, Tahdhīb al-ʾasmāʾ, vol. 1, p. 175.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 448; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 133; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 2, p. 278.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 448; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 1, p. 193; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 8, p. 243.
- Ṣafdī, al-Wāfī bi l-Wafīyāt, vol. 4, p. 362.
- Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 279.
- Ibn Kalbī, Jumhurat al-nasab, p. 643.
- Dhahabi, vol. 2, p. 478.
- Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 149; Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 2, p. 314.
- Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 378-9; Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 7, p. 401; Muqaddisī, al-Bidaʾ wa tārīkh, vol. 5, p. 24-25; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 133.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 448; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 133.
- Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 133; Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 2, p. 557.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 448.
- Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 16, p. 359; Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 485.
- Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 485; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 769.
- Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 1, p. 70.
- مَن کُنتُ مولاه فهذا عليٌ مولاه
- Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 179; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 38, 45.
- Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 2, p. 461-464.
- Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 15, p. 390.
- Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 1, p. 178; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 31.
- Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 32, p. 34.
- Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 2, p. 359.
- Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 263-264.
- Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 481.
- Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 485; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 319.
- Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 32, 263; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 16, p. 370.
- Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 259; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 448; Ibn Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, p. 279.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 448.
- Minqarī, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 362-363.
- Nahj al-balāgha, khutba 182.
- Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 259; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 448; Ibn Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 3, p. 325.
- Tustarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 4, p. 173.
- Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 447; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 16, p. 371-372.
- Tustarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 4, p. 172.
- Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 10, p. 109; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 2, p. 280; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 317-318.
- Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 16, p. 358, 366; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 133.
- Ibn Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 2, p. 556.
- Nawawī, Tahdhīb al-ʾasmāʾ, vol. 1, p. 176.
- Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 398; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 2, p. 211, 320, 345, 362, 375, 376; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 1, p. 145, 146; vol. 13, p. 231.
- Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 365-366.
- Muṣṭafā b. Qaḥṭān al-Ḥabīb, p. 90.
- Hirawī, al-Ishārāt ilā maʿrifat al-ziyārāt, p. 62.
- Hirawī, ʿAlī b. Bakr. Al-Ishārāt ilā maʿrifat al-ziyārāt. Edited by Junīn Surdīl. Ṭumīn: Damascus: 1953.
- Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd b. Hibat Allāh. Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha. Edited by Muḥammad Abu l-faḍl Ibrāhīm. Cairo: 1385 AH/1965.
- Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-ṣaḥāba. Edited by Muḥammad Ibrāhīm Bannā, Muḥammad Aḥmad Āshūr, Muḥmūd ʿAbd al-Wahhāb Fāyid. Cairo: 1390-1393 AH.
- Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Abī l-Karam. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. [n.p]. [n.d].
- Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-ṣaḥāba. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, 1412 AH-1992.
- Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb. Edited by Ṣidqī Jamīl ʿAṭṭār. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1415 AH.
- Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Beirut: [n.d].
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Najaf: 1376 AH.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, 1412 AH.
- Ibn ʿAsākir, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan. Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1415 AH.
- Ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī, ʿAbd Allah b. Muslim . Al-Maʿārif. Edited by Tharwat ʿAkkāsha. Cairo: 1388 AH.
- Ibn Kalbī, Hisham b. Muḥammad. Jumhurat al-nasab. Edited by Nājī Ḥasan. Beirut: 1407 AH.
- Kashshī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl known as Rijāl al-Kashshī. Edited by Ḥasan Muṣṭafawī. Mashhad: 1348 Sh.
- Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Murūj al-dhahab wa maʿadin al-jawhar. Beirut: [n.d].
- Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Jumal wa al-nuṣra li sayyid al-ʿitra fī ḥarb al-Baṣra. Edited by ʿAlī Mīrsharīfī. Qom: 1416 AH.
- Muqaddisī, Muṭahhar b. Ṭāhir. Al-Bidaʾ wa tārīkh. Edited by Clément Huart. Paris: 1916.
- Nahj al-balāgha. Translated to Farsi by Sayyid Jaʿfar Shahīdī. Tehran: 1370 Sh.
- Naṣr b. Muzāhim Minqarī. Waqʿat Ṣiffīn. Edited by ʿAbd al-Salām Muḥammad Hārūn. Cairo: 1382.
- Nawawī, Yaḥya b. Sharaf. Tahdhīb al-ʾasmāʾ wa al-lughāt. Cairo: Idārat al-Ṭibāʿat al-Munīra, [n.d].
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Amālī al-Ṣadūq. Edited by Ḥusayn Aʿlamī. Beirut: 1400 AH.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Khiṣāl. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1416 AH.
- Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī. Beirut: [n.d].
- Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Rijāl. Edited by Jawād Qayyūmī al-Iṣfahānī. Qom: 1415 AH.
- Yaʿqūbī, Aḥmad b. Abī Yaʿqūb al-. Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī. [n.p]. [n.p].