Wahb b. 'Abd Allah b. Maslama

Priority: b, Quality: b
From wikishia
Companion of Imam (a)
Wahb b. 'Abd Allah b. Maslama
Companion of Imam Ali (a)
Teknonym Abu Juhayfa
Epithet Wahab al-Khayr
Place of Birth Medina
Place(s) of Residence Medina, Kufa
Death/Martyrdom 74/693-4
Burial Place Kufa
Activities The head of Kufa's police (Shurta) as well as the city's treasury (bayt al-mal) in the time of Imam al-Ali (a). An authority of fiqh and hadith in Kufa

Wahb b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Maslama (Arabic: وهب بن عبدالله بن مَسْلمة), known as Abū Juḥayfa (ابوجحیفة), was from the tribe of Suwa'a b. 'Amir b. Sa'sa'a. He was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and a companion of Imam 'Ali (a). He was hardly an adolescent when the Prophet (s) died.

During his caliphate, Imam 'Ali (a) appointed him as the head of his police (Shurta) and the Treasury (bayt al-mal), and gave him the title of “Wahb al-Khayr” (the Good Wahb). He was in the army of Imam 'Ali (a) in the Battle of Nahrawan.

He transmitted hadiths concerning adhan, qibla, and the proof of the imamate of the Twelve Imams (a)—these hadiths are transmitted in Sunni sources. He was an authority of fiqh and hadith in Kufa after the deaths of old companions of the Prophet (s).

Lineage, Birth, and Death

His father's name is mentioned in some sources as Jabir or Wahb as well.[1]

Although the year of his birth is not mentioned in sources, according to Ibn Sa'd's account[2] (confirmed by some biographers)[3], he was hardly an adolescent when the Prophet (s) passed away. In addition to what he directly heard from the Prophet (s) as memories of his childhood, he also heard and transmitted hadiths from companions of the Prophet (s), such as Imam 'Ali (a) and al-Bara' b. 'Azib.[4]

Abu Juhayfa died when Bushr was the ruler of Kufa.[5] Some people, such as Ibn Habban,[6] believe that he died exactly in 74/693-4.[7]

Migration to Kufa

After the Prophet's (s) demise, Abu Juhayfa did not stay in Medina for long. When Kufa was constructed (beginning from 17/637), he moved to Kufa together with the family of Banu Suwa'a and adopted it as his hometown.[8]

In the Period of Imam 'Ali (a)

According to hadiths, when Imam 'Ali (a) moved to Iraq in 36/656-7, Abu Juhayfa joined him and the Imam (a) gave him the title of "Wahb al-Khayr" (the Good Wahb).[9] al-Barqi,[10] an Imami scholar, mentioned him as a close companion of Imam 'Ali (a), and al-Shaykh al-Tusi[11] also mentioned him as a companion of the Imam (a) without any explanations.

It is said that Amir al-Mu'minin (a) appointed him as the head of Kufa's police (Shurta) as well as the city's treasury.[12] According to al-Khatib al-Baghdadi,[13] Abu Juhayfa was in the army of Imam 'Ali (a) in the Battle of Nahrawan and went to Mada'in together with the Imam (a). According to Ibn Athir,[14] he also attended other battles of the Imam (a).

Authority in Jurisprudence and Hadith

When senior companions of the Prophet (s) died, Abu Juhayfa became the authority of fiqh and hadith in Kufa. Al-Ya'qubi[15] mentioned him as a jurist of the period of 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan (reign: 65/684-5 to 86/705).

His Hadiths

Not many hadiths are transmitted from Abu Juhayfa. According to al-Nawawi's count,[16] the hadiths transmitted by him from the Prophet (s) in reliable Sunni sources of hadiths, including al-Sihah al-Sitta, amount to 45, 7 of which are cited in Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.[17] Two of his hadiths in fiqh are mostly cited and appealed to with respect to the rulings of adhan and the direction towards qibla.[18]

One of Abu Juhayfa's hadiths which is significant for the Imamiya and is appealed to as an argument for the Twelve Imams in Sunni sources is the one in which the Prophet (s) made it explicit that there would be twelve caliphs after him.[19]

In addition to hadiths transmitted by Abu Juhayfa from the Prophet (s) and his companions, he also transmitted some historical events, such as the stories of Nasr b. Muzahim[20] through Ajlah b. 'Abd Allah al-Kindi.

People who Transmitted his Hadiths

It is said that people such as his son, 'Awn, 'Amir al-Sha'bi, 'Ali b. Aqmar, Abu Ishaq al-Sabi', Salama b. Kuhayl, Hakam b. 'Utayba, and Isma'il b. Abi Khalid have transmitted his hadiths.[21]

Accepting Bushr b. Marwan's Gift

Kufa underwent many riots and rebels from 40/660-1 through 71/690-1 when Mus'ab b. Zubayr was killed. The role of Abu Juhayfa in, and his positions on, the events is not clearly known. Late in his life, he accepted a gift from Bushr b. Marwan al-Umawi when he was the ruler of Iraq (71/690-1 to 75/694-5), while other scholars of Kufa refused the gift.[22]

Notes

  1. Ibn Ḥazm, Jumhurat ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 273; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1561.
  2. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kabīr, vol. 6, p. 42.
  3. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 162; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 396; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 3, p. 181.
  4. Ibn Qaysarānī, al-Jamʿ bayn al-rijāl al-ṣaḥīḥayn, vol. 2, p. 540.
  5. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-kabīr, vol. 6, p. 42; Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Tārīkh-i Khalīfa, vol. p. 349.
  6. Ibn Ḥabbān, Mashāhīr ʿulamā al-amṣār, p. 46.
  7. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 3, p. 219.
  8. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 162; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 4, p. 22.
  9. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 5, p. 96, 157.
  10. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 5.
  11. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 61.
  12. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 5, p. 96, 157.
  13. Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh-i Baghdād, vol. 1, p. 199.
  14. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 5, p. 157.
  15. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 282.
  16. Nawawī, Tahdhīb al-ʾasmāʾ, vol. 1, p. 202.
  17. Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 1, p. 55; Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, vol. 1, p. 360; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad-i Aḥmad, vol. 4, p. 307-309; Mizzī, Tuḥfat al-ashrāf, vol. 9, p. 69-103.
  18. Nawawī, Tahdhīb al-ʾasmāʾ, vol. 1, p. 201-202.
  19. Nuʿmānī, al-Ghayba, p. 78; Abū al-Ṣalāḥ al-Ḥalabī, Taqrīb al-maʿārif, p. 175; Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā, p. 363; Ibn Shahrāshūb, al-Manāqib, vol. 1, p. 291.
  20. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 141; p. 462.
  21. Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 4, p. 22; Ibn Qaysarānī, al-Jamʿ bayn al-rijāl al-ṣaḥīḥayn, vol. 2, p. 540-541.
  22. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 170.

References

  • Abū al-Ṣalāḥ al-Ḥalabī, Taqī b. Najm. Taqrīb al-maʿārif. Edited by Riḍā Ustādī. Qom: 1404 AH.
  • Abū Nuʿaym al-Iṣfahānī, Aḥmad. Dhikr akhbār Iṣbahān. Edited by Dedering. Leiden: 1931.
  • Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. Musnad-i Aḥmad. Cairo: 1313 AH.
  • Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-. Tārīkh al-kabīr. Hyderabad Deccan: 1398 AH.
  • Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. Istanbul: 1315 AH.
  • Barqī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Kitāb al-Rijāl. Tehran: 1342 Sh.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Muḥammad Ḥamīd Allāh. Cairo: 1959 CE.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. volume 5. Edited by Guitin. Bayt al-Maqdis: 1936.
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Tārīkh al-Islām. Cairo: 1368 AH.
  • Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Al-Mustadrak ʿala l-ṣaḥīḥayn. Hyderabad Deccan: 1334 AH.
  • Haythamī, ʿAlī b. Abūbakr. Majmaʿ al-zawāʾid wa manbaʿ al-fawāʾid. Beirut: 1353 AH.
  • Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad. Al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl. Hyderabad Deccan: 1373 AH-1953 CE.
  • Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-ṣaḥāba. Cairo: 1280 AH.
  • Ibn Ḥabbān, Muḥammad. Mashāhīr ʿulamā al-amṣār. Edited by Flaiech Hummer. Cairo: 1379 AH-1959.
  • Ibn Ḥazm al-Andulīsī, ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. Saʿīd. Jamharat ansāb al-ʿarab. Beirut: 1403 AH-1983.
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kabīr. Edited by Settersten, Richard. Leiden: 1909 CE.
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Qom: Chāpkhāna-yi ʿIlmiyya, [n.d].
  • Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, 1412 AH.
  • Ibn Qaysarānī, Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir. Al-Jamʿ bayn al-rijāl al-ṣaḥīḥayn. Hyderabad Deccan: 1323 AH.
  • Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Tārīkh-i Baghdād. Cairo: 1349 AH.
  • Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ. Tārīkh-i Khalīfa. Edited by Suhayl Zukār. Damascus: 1967.
  • Mizzī, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-. Tuḥfat al-ashrāf. Mumbai: 1397 AH-1977.
  • Muslim b. Ḥajjāj. Ṣaḥīḥ. Edited by Muḥammad fuʾād ʿAbd al-Bāqī . Beirut: 1374 AH-1954.
  • Naṣr b. Muzāhim Minqarī. Waqʿat Ṣiffīn. Edited by ʿAbd al-Salām Muḥammad Hārūn. Cairo: 1382 AH.
  • Nuʿmānī, Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm al-. Kitāb al-Ghayba. Beirut: 1403 AH.
  • Nawawī, Yaḥya b. Sharaf. Tahdhīb al-ʾasmāʾ wa al-lughāt. Cairo: Idārat al-Ṭibāʿat al-Munīra, [n.d].
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Iʿlām al-warā bi-aʿlām al-hudā. Beirut: 1399 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī. Edited by Muḥammad Kāẓim Katbī. Najaf: 1380 AH-1961.
  • Yaʿqūbī, Aḥmad b. Abī Yaʿqūb al-. Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī. Beirut: 1379 AH.