Without priority, Quality: b

Al-Mughira b. al-Harith b. Abd al-Muttalib

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sahaba
Al-Mughira b. al-Harith b. Abd al-Muttalib
Personal Information
Full Name Al-Mughira b. al-Harith b. 'Abd al-Muttalib
Teknonym Abu Sufyan
Lineage Quraysh
Well-Known Relatives The Prophet (s) (cousin)
Birth 53 BH/570
Place of Birth Mecca
Place(s) of Residence Mecca
Death/Martyrdom 15 or 20/ 636-37 or 641-42
Burial Place Al-Baqi' cemetery
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas Hunayn
Known for Poet

Abū Sufyān al-Mughīra b. al-Ḥārith b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: اَبوسُفْیان مغیرة بن حارث بن عبدالمطّلب) (d. 15 or 20/636-37 or 641-642) was the cousin of Prophet Muhammad (s) and his companion; he was also a poet in early Islam. After Bi'tha of the Prophet (s), al-Mughira became a bitter enemy of the Prophet (s) and supported the polytheists who fought against him. However, after the conquest of Mecca by the Prophet (s), he converted to Islam.

Lineage and Birth

Based on the satiric poems of Hassan b. Thabit,[1] a slave called Sumayya was the mother of al-Mughira b. Harith.[2] While another narrations mentioned that his mother's name was Ghaziyya who was a woman from Quraysh.[3] Al-Mughira was born on the same night that the Prophet (s) was born, and it is said he resemble the Prophet (s) a lot.[4] He was the foster brother of the Prophet (s) and they were close friends in their childhood.

Disagreements on His Name

Abu Sufyan was the teknonym of al-Mughira b. al-Harith, but there is no agreement on his name. The majority of historians mentioned his name as al-Mughira including Ibn Hisham[5] and Ibn Sa'd.[6] While a number of historians mentioned that al-Mughira was his brother's name.[7]

Demise

It is said al-Mughira died in the beginning of caliphate of 'Umar b. al-Khattab in 15/636-37,[8] while other narrations mentioned that he died in 20/640-41. He is buried in al-Baqi' cemetery.[9]

Supporting the Polytheists after Bi'that

After Bi'tha of the Prophet (s), al-Mughira became a bitter enemy of the Prophet (s).[10] He supported the polytheists to fight against the Prophet (s).[11] Along with 'Abd Allah b. Zib'ari and 'Amr b. 'As, al-Mughira mocked Prophet Muhammad (s), but Hassan b. Thabit responded with satiric poems.[12] After the victory of Muslims against the polytheists in the Battle of Badr, al-Mughira prepared a comprehensive account on it and delivered it to Abu Lahab.[13]

Conversion to Islam

After the Conquest of Mecca by Prophet Muhammad (s), al-Mughira b. al-Harith came to the Prophet (s) with his family in al-Abwa'. At first they were ignored, but when they converted to Islam, the Prophet (s) told Ali b. Abi Talib (a) that he accepted his apology and other Muslims are recommended to forgive him.[14]

Joining Prophet Muhammad (s)

Al-Mughira attended the Battle of Hunayn and was among the last few who fought alongside the Prophet (s).[15] After the battle, he achieved a large amount of loots.[16]

Elegies and Narrations

Al-Dhahabi has narrated a hadith from him.[17] When al-Mughira converted to Islam, he was forgiven by the Prophet (s). Al-Mughira wrote poems on the apologies he made and on the admirations he had for the Prophet (s).[18] Also after the demise of the Prophet (s), al-Mughira wrote an elegy on him.[19]

Notes

  1. Ḥassān b. Thābit, Dīwān, vol. 1, p. 398.
  2. Marzbānī, Muʿjam al-shuʿarā, p. 271.
  3. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 49; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb, vol. 4, p. 1673.
  4. Ibn Ḥabīb, Kitāb al-muḥabbar, p. 46; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 539.
  5. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 301.
  6. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 49.
  7. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb, vol. 4, p. 1673; Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 4, p. 460.
  8. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb, vol. 4, p. 1677.
  9. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 53; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 11, p. 504; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb, vol. 4, p. 1677.
  10. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 806.
  11. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 50.
  12. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 806-807; Iṣfahānī, al-ʾAghānī, vol. 4, p. 137-138.
  13. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 301.
  14. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 807-814; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 52.
  15. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 3, p. 898-902; Basawī, al-Maʿrifat wa al-tārīkh, vol. 1, p. 327.
  16. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 694; Ibn Ḥabīb, Kitāb al-muḥabbar, p. 473.
  17. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 1, p. 203.
  18. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 4, p. 43-44; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 51.
  19. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb, vol. 4, p. 1675-1676.

References

  • Basawī, Yaʿqūb b. Sufyān. Al-Maʿrifat wa al-tārīkh. Edited by Akram Ḍiyāʾ al-ʿAmrī. Baghdad: 1975.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Muḥammad Ḥamīd Allāh. Cairo: 1959 CE.
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ. Edited by Shuʿayb al-Arnaʾūt and Ḥusayn Asad. Beirut: 1405 AH.
  • Ḥassān b. Thābit. Dīwān. Edited by Walīd b. ʿArafāt. London: 1971.
  • Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-ṣaḥāba. Cairo: 1280 AH.
  • Ibn Ḥabīb, Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb b. Umayya. Kitāb al-muḥabbar. Edited by Ilza Lichten Stetter. Beirut: Dār al-Āfāq al-Jadīda, [n.d].
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, [n.d].
  • Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Cairo: 1380 AH.
  • Ibn Hishām, ʿAbd al-Malik. Al-Sīra al-nabawīyya. Edited by Muṣṭafā al-Saqā and others. Cairo: 1355 AH-1936.
  • Iṣfahānī, Abū l-Faraj al-. Al-ʾAghānī. Cairo: Dār al-Kutub al-Miṣriyya, [n.d].
  • Marzbānī, Muḥammad b. ʿImrān. Muʿjam al-shuʿarā. Edited by ʿAbd al-Sattār Aḥmad Farrāj. Cairo: 1379 AH-1960.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-.Tārīkh Ṭabarī. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Wāqidī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Maghāzī. Edited by Marsden Jones. London: [n.n], 1966.