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Adi b. Hatim al-Ta'i

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Sahaba
Adi b. Hatim al-Ta'i
Personal Information
Full Name 'Adi b. Hatim b. 'Abd Allah al-Ta'i
Teknonym Abu Turayf
Lineage Tay' tribe
Well-Known Relatives Hatim al-Ta'i (father), Habis b. Sa'd al-Ta'i (uncle)
Death/Martyrdom 67/686-87 or 68/687-88
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas Battle of Jamal, Battle of Siffin, Battle of Nahrawan
Known for Companion of Imam 'Ali (a) and Imam al-Hasan (a)
Notable Roles Head of Tayy tribe

ʿAdī b. Ḥātim al-Ṭāʾī (Arabic: عَدي بن حاتم الطائي) (d. 67/686-87 or 68/687-88) was a companion of Prophet Muhammad (s) and 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and the head of Tay' tribe. Hatim al-Ta'i, his father, was famous for being a generous man in Jahiliyya (Ignorance) era. 'Adi b. Hatim was present in every event along with Imam 'Ali (a) and he supported Imam al-Hasan (a) in time of his caliphate. He openly praised Imam 'Ali (a) in front of Mu'awiya.

Family

'Adi's father, Hatim al-Ta'i was famous for being a generous man in Jahiliyya era.[1] After his father, 'Adi became the leader of his tribe, Tayy'.[2]

He had three sons:

Convert to Islam

'Adi b. Hatim, the head of Tayy' tribe was a Christian before he converted to Islam.[6] In Rabi' II in 9/630 Prophet Muhammad (s) sent an army lead by 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) to Tayy' tribe.[7] When 'Adi was informed of the army of Muslims approaching his tribe, he sent his family and his properties to Syria, but his sister, daughter of Hatim al-Ta'i was left behind and was held as captive by Muslim.

The captives were held near al-Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina. When Prophet Muhammad (s) was passing by them, 'Adi's sister told him: "I lost my father and my brother who takes care of me is missing, please help me so that God help you." Prophet (s) asked about his name and she replied: 'Adi b. Hatim. Prophet (s) said: Was he the one who ran away from God and His Prophet? The day after, she asked the same question and Prophet Muhammad (s) replied with the same answer. The third day, she was disappointed and did not ask her question again, but 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) who was walking behind Prophet (s) hinted at her to ask the question and she did so. Prophet (s) gave her clothes and a mount and sent her back to her tribe with a trustworthy caravan.

When she returned to his brother, she complained to him that he did not look for her as he forgot her. 'Adi apologized and asked about Prophet (s). She told him to meet Prophet (s) soon and said: "If he is the Prophet (s) those who convert sooner are superior and if he is a King, your dignity would not be hurt."

'Adi accepted her request and travelled to Medina. He met Prophet Muhammad (s) in the mosque. Prophet (s) welcomed him and took him to his house. Prophet (s) asked him: "Don't you receive one fourth of the income of you tribe members because you are the leader of them?" He said yes. Prophet (s) said: "But the money you attain is not Halal (Permissible) according to your religion."

Then 'Adi b. Hatim noticed Muhammad (s) knows about al-Ghayb (the unseen) and believed that he was the Prophet (s) and converted to Islam;[8] it is said he converted to Islam in 10/631-32[9] Prophet Muhammad (s) made him responsible for collecting sadaqa (Zakat) from Tayy' and Banu Asad tribes.[10]

After Prophet Muhammad (s)

In the time of Abu Bakr and 'Umar b. al-Khattab, 'Adi b. Hatim attended Ridda battles[11] (especially against false prophets) and also Muslims' conquests in Iran and Iraq.[12] In the time of 'Uthman b. Affan, he opposed him and consequently he was exiled like other companions of Prophet Muhammad (s).

In the time of Imam 'Ali (a)

'Adi always supported Imam 'Ali (a) in every event:[13]

The Battle of Jamal

In the battle of Jamal, Imam 'Ali (a) ordered a number of his men including 'Adi to injure the camel 'A'isha was riding on.[14] 'Adi's eye was injured in the battle of Jamal[15] (or the battle of Siffin) and one of his sons, Turayf was martyred.[16]

The Battle of Siffin

There was a competition between 'Adi b. Hatim and a man from Banu Hazmar to carry the flag of Muslims' army. Eventually Imam 'Ali (a) made 'Adi responsible for carrying the flag.[17] Also Imam (a) sent a number of his men including 'Adi to Mu'awiya to invite him to accept God, his Holy book Quran and Muslims.[18]

Zayd the son of 'Adi noticed the dead body of his uncle, Habis b. Sa'd al-Ta'i killed by Muslims' army, then he decided to leave Imam (a) and joined Mu'awiya's army.[19]

The Battle of Nahrawan

'Adi supported Imam 'Ali (a) in the battle of Nahrawan as well,[20] and one of his sons, Turfa was martyred in the battle who buried by his father there.[21]

In the Time of Imam al-Hasan (a)

'Adi supported Imam al-Hasan (a) as well. He encouraged people to join Imam's (a) army to face Mu'awiya.[22] He is mentioned in historical sources among those who opposed Imam (a) about agreeing with the Peace Treaty with Mu'awiya.

After the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan (a) once Mu'awiya asked 'Adi about the fate of his sons. He said that three of them were martyred in the battle of Siffin. Mu'awiya said: "'Ali (a) did not treat you fairly, as your sons are dead but he looked after his own sons." 'Adi replied: "No, I did not treat 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) fairly, as he is martyred and gone but I am still alive."[23]

Another day, Mu'awiya criticized Imam 'Ali (a) in front of 'Adi. 'Adi reacted and said: "By God, our hearts filled with hatred to you are still pounding and our swords which were used against you are still with us. If you ever plan to hurt us we will come at you. Having us killed or tortured is better than bearing someone talking impolitely about 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a)."[24]

Mu'awiya said to 'Adi to talk about 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and his caliphate. 'Adi refused but Mu'awiya insisted. Then 'Adi began praising Imam (a):

"By God, he was a visionary and strong man, his words were based on justice and his judgments were based on truth. He was full of knowledge and wisdom. He hated deceiving glamour of this world and he was persistent with vigils; he wept a lot and thought greatly; he watch over his ego in lonely times. He lived with hardship and seemingly he lived like ordinary people. He answered all of our questions and met our needs. Although he was close to us, he was a charismatic man with divine elegance that we barely dared to look him in the eye or speak in front of him. He revered believers and supported the poor. The powerful were not afraid of his tyranny and the inferior were not hopeless in the time of 'Ali's (a) rule. By God, he worshiped at nights greatly and he wept very much. I clearly remember when he said: Oh, world! Stay away from me as you cannot deceive me."[25]

'Adi's speech was so influential that Mu'awiya was affected and burst into tears: "God, bless Abu l-Hasan; he was such a man." Then he asked 'Adi: How do you bear absence of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a)? He said: "I am like a women whose child is killed in her arms, weeping constantly unable to forget her child."

Narrating Hadith

Al-Shaykh al-Tusi regarded 'Adi b. Hatim amongst the companions of Prophet Muhammad (s) and Imam 'Ali (a). He has narrated a hadith from 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a).[26] Also about sixty hadiths are stated in al-Sihah al-Sitta, the Sunni hadith book from 'Adi.[27].[28]

Demise

Some sources mentioned that 'Adi passed away in 67/686-87[29] and some cited in 68/687-88[30] which took place in the time of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi's rule.[31]7 It is said he lived a hundred and twenty years.[32]

Notes

  1. Dīyārbakrī, Tārīkh al-khamīs, vol. 2, p. 309.
  2. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 79.
  3. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 261.
  4. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 365.
  5. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 522.
  6. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 79.
  7. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 3, p. 11.
  8. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 3, p. 112-115; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 578-580; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 3, p. 988-989.
  9. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 4, p. 388.
  10. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 600; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 530.
  11. Wāqidī, al-Radda, p. 66.
  12. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 3, p. 486; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 6, p. 344.
  13. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 99; Ibn Ḥazm al-Andulīsī, Jamharat ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 402.
  14. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 249; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 525.
  15. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 261; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 521.
  16. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 261; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 11, p. 543.
  17. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 9; Ibn Ḥazm al-Andulīsī, Jamharat ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 402.
  18. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 302; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 6.
  19. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 522.
  20. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 11, p. 543.
  21. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 375; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 88.
  22. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 32.
  23. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 4.
  24. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 4-5.
  25. Qummī, Safīnat al-biḥār, vol. 6, p. 184.
  26. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 12, p. 147.
  27. Muslim Nayshābūrī, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, vol. 2, p. 766.
  28. Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 1, p. 46.
  29. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 99; Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 5, p. 55.
  30. Nuwayrī, Nihāyat al-ʾarab, vol. 21, p. 77.
  31. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 99; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 11, p. 543.
  32. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 11, p. 543.

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