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Shabath b. Rib'i

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Shabath b. Rib'i
Commander of 'Umar b. Sa'd's army
Full Name Shabath b. Rib'i b. Husyan al-Tamimi al-Yarbu'i
Teknonym Abu 'Abd al-Quddus
Lineage Banu Yarbu'
Place of Residence Kufa
Death 70/689-90
Era Umayyad
Known for Betraying Muslim b. 'Aqil and Imam al-Husayn (a)
Notable roles Commander of Imam 'Ali's army
Activities Opposing 'Uthman, Presence in the battles of Siffin, Nahrawan, inviting Imam al-Husayn (a) to Kufa, commander of 'Umar b. Sa'd's army in the battle of Karbala, opposing al-Mukhtar and supporting Mus'ab b. al-Zubayr

Shabath b. Ribʿī b. Ḥuṣayn al-Tamīmī al-Yarbūʿī (Arabic:شَبَث بن رِبعِي بن حُصَین التَمیمی اليَربوعي) (d. about 70/689-90) was among rich people of Kufa who had an inconsistent personality in the history.

Shabath was among dissidents of 'Uthman and a commander of the army of Imam Ali (a) in the Battle of Siffin. On the way toward Nahrawan, he joined Khawarij, but after the words of Imam (a), he returned and took the leadership of a part of Imam's (a) army in the Battle of Nahrawan.

He was among those who testified against Hujr b. 'Adi.

In the Event of Karbala, he was among those who wrote letter to Imam al-Husayn (a) and asked him to go to Kufa. However, because of Ibn Ziyad's dominance over Kufa, he changed his position and played a significant role in dispersing the people of Kufa from around Muslim b. 'Aqil. On the Day of Ashura, although he was the leader of foot soldiers of the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd, but he tried to show himself less.

In the Uprising of al-Mukhtar and the revolt of the nobles of Kufa, he stood against al-Mukhtar and also played a role in provoking Mus'ab a. al-Zubayr and killing al-Mukhtar.

His Lineage and Kunya

His teknonym was Abu 'Abd al-Quddus. His lineage reached Banu Yarbu' from Banu Hanzala tribe.[1] Some of Banu Hanzala tribe joined the army of Aisha following the incitements of Talha and al-Zubayr. But all of Banu Yarbu' stood loyal to Imam Ali (a).[2] In the Battle of Nahrawan, some of Banu Hanzala including Shabath b. Rib'i joined Khawarij.[3] Some sources have mentioned his name as Shabath b. Rib'i al-Riyahi.[4]

His Life

He was among those who saw the time of the Prophet (s). For a while, he was Mu'adhdhin of Sajah (who claimed to be a prophet) but later returned to Islam.[5] He was among dissidents of 'Uthman and in a letter to Mu'awiya, regarded him active in the murder of 'Uthman.

In the Battle of Siffin, Shabath was the leader of a part of Imam Ali's (a) army.[6] Together with other people, he went to Mu'awiya as the representative of Imam (a).[7] When Hanzala b. Rabi' escaped toward Mu'awiya, Shabath b. Rib'i and two other people from Banu Tamim destroyed his house by the order of Imam Ali (a).[8]

After the event of Hakamiyya, he joined Khawarij.[9] However, after hearing the words of Imam (a), he joined him and took the leadership of a part of Imam's (a) army in the Battle of Nahrawan.[10]

During the rule of Mu'awiya, in the uprising of Farwa b. Nufil, he was the leader of the army of al-Mughira which led to the death of Farwa.[11]

In the Event of 'Ashura

Shabath was among those who wrote letter to Imam al-Husayn (a) and asked him to come to Kufa.[12] However, because of Ibn Ziyad's dominance over Kufa, he changed his position and played a significant role in dispersing the people of Kufa from around Muslim b. 'Aqil.[13] On the Day of 'Ashura, when Imam al-Husayn (a) addressed the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd, addressed Shabath as one of the writers of the letters people of Kufa wrote to Imam (a).[14]

He did not want to participate in the Battle of 'Ashura and fighting Imam al-Husayn (a) and when Ibn Ziyad asked him to join the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd, he pretended to be sick in order not to stand against Imam (a). But when Ibn Ziyad told him that "If you obey us, you should go to fight the enemy", he moved toward Karbala.[15]

On the day of 'Ashura, he was the commander of foot soldiers in the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd.[16] When they were showing their happiness for the martyrdom of Muslim b. 'Awsaja, Shabath admonished them.[17] When Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan pierced his spear in the tent of Imam al-Husayn (a) and shouted that, "Bring fire to burn this tent with the people therein.", Imam al-Husayn (a) cursed him. Shabath b. Rib'i admonished him as well.[18]

After the Tragedy of 'Ashura

After the tragedy of 'Ashura, thankful of the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a), Shabath reconstructed his mosque in Kufa (which previously Imam Ali (a) had prohibited people of praying there).[19]

Following the Uprising of al-Mukhtar, Shabath was appointed by 'Abd Allah b. Muti' to fight al-Mukhtar.[20] He also had a role in the revolt of the chiefs of Kufa against al-Mukhtar.[21] When the army of al-Mukhtar led by Ibrahim b. Malik al-Ashtar went to fight the army of Syria, chiefs of Kufa revolted against al-Mukhtar. Shabath b. Rib'i together with Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan and Muhammad b. Ash'ath b. Qays were among the chief leaders of the revolt. Al-Mukhtar sent someone to tell Ibrahim b. Malik al-Ashtar to bring back the army and suppress the revolt.[22] Following the news of the return of Ibrahim b. Malik Ashtar, Shabath changed his position and sent a message to al-Mukhtar that, "We are from your tribe and your right hand. By God I swear that we will not fight you and you should be confident about this."[23] Al-Mukhtar ignored his letter and sent Ibrahim b. Malik to fight him.

After the revolt was defeated, al-Mukhtar began to chase the killers of Imam al-Husayn (a). Shabath b. Rib'i, Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan and some other key people in the tragedy of 'Ashura escaped to Basra. Al-Mukhtar sent a group to run them down and they killed Shimr, but Shabath escaped to Basra and provoked Mus'ab b. al-Zubayr there to fight al-Mukhtar[24] and helped him in killing al-Mukhtar.[25]

When Hujr b. 'Adi was in the prison of Ziyad b. Abih, Shabth was among those who testified against him.[26]

He died about 70/689-670.

Narrating Hadith

Shabath has narrated from Imam Ali (a) and Hudhayfa. Muhammad b. Ka'b Qarzi, Sulayman al-Taymi,[27]30 Anas b. Malik and others have narrated from him. Also, there is a hadith in Sunan Abi Dawud narrated from him.[28]

Notes

  1. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 12, p. 163.
  2. Minqarī, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 205.
  3. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 3, p. 326; Ibn Kalbī, Jumhurat al-nasab, p. 217, 225-226.
  4. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 3, p. 284; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 6, p. 373.
  5. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 12, p. 163; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 5, p. 51.
  6. Minqarī, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 195-198; Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 3, p. 287.
  7. Minqarī, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 187; Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 3, p. 285, 289; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 302; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 5.
  8. Minqarī, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 97.
  9. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 3, p. 326.
  10. Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 210; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 362; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 85.
  11. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 166.
  12. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 4, p. 20, 31, 289; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 158; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 353.
  13. Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 239.
  14. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 4, p. 62; Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 99; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 425.
  15. Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p.254; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 178.
  16. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 4, p. 60; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 187; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 422.
  17. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 193; Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 4, p. 67.
  18. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 4, p. 69; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 194; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 439
  19. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl, vol. 9, p. 12; Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 490.
  20. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 267.
  21. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 6, p. 44; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 270.
  22. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 270.
  23. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 6, p. 47.
  24. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 4, p. 267; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 301; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 6, p. 427.
  25. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 4, p. 271.
  26. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 4, p. 254; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 269.
  27. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 3, p. 303.
  28. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 5, p. 417; vol. 6, 79.

References

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  • Dīnawarī, Aḥmad b. Dāwūd al-. Al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl. Edited by ʿAbd al-Munʿim ʿĀmir. Qom: Manshūrāt al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1368 Sh.
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Tārīkh al-Islām. Edited by ʿUmar ʿAbd al-Salām al-Tadmurī. Beirut: Dār al-Kitāb al-ʿArabī, 1413 AH.
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  • Ibn Kalbī, Hisham b. Muḥammad. Jumhurat al-nasab. Edited by Nājī Ḥasan. Beirut: 1407 AH.
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