Priority: c, Quality: b

Hudayn b. al-Mundhir al-Raqashi

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Companion of Imam (a)
Hudayn b. al-Mundhir al-Raqashi
Companion of Imam 'Ali (a)
Teknonym Abu Muhammad, Abu Hafs
Well Known As Abu Sasan
Lineage Bakr b. Wa'il
Place(s) of Residence Kufa, Istakhr
Death/Martyrdom 99/717 or 100/718
Activities Governor of Istakhr, participating in the battles of Jamal and Siffin

Ḥuḍayn b. al-Mundhir al-Raqāshī (Arabic: حُضَین بن المُنْذِر الرَقاشی), know as Abu Sasan al-Ansari was a companion of Imam 'Ali (a), a transmitter of hadiths, a nobleman and a prominent figure of the Bakr b. Wa'il tribe. He attended the battles of Jamal and Siffin. During his reign, Imam 'Ali (a) appointed him as the ruler of Istakhr. In Sunni and Shi'a sources, Hudayn is referred to as a reliable transmitter of hadiths.

Biography

In some sources, his name is mentioned as "Ḥuṣayn" (Arabic: حُصَين), but the correct form is Ḥuḍayn.[1] He is attributed to one of his grandmothers, Raqasha, the daughter of Dabi'a.[2] His teknonyms were Abu Muhammad,[3] Abu Hafs,[4] and in most sources, Abu Sasan. According to Ibn Manjawayh (d. 428/1036),[5] his title was Abu Sasan, and his teknonym was Abu Muhammad.

In Sunni and Shiite sources, Hudayn is considered to be a reliable transmitter of hadiths.[6] Hudayn was known as an eloquent poet.[7] Scattered parts of his poems are available in sources.[8]

There is no information about the year of his birth. Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin speculated that he was born in 3/624.[9] There is a slight difference over the year of his death. According to al-Bukhari,[10] he died in 100/718, and according to Ibn Manjawayh,[11] he died in 99/717.

There have been doubts about the accuracy of two hadiths according to which Hudayn was one of the first people who joined Imam 'Ali (a) after the event of Saqifa Bani Sa'ida,[12] because he was of a very young age then.[13]

Accompanying Imam 'Ali (a)

Al-Barqi[14] has referred to Hudayn as a close companion of Imam 'Ali (a). In the Battle of Jamal, Imam 'Ali (a) appointed Hudayn as the commander of the infantry of the Bakr b. Wa'il tribe.[15]

In the Battle of Siffin, he was probably 34 years old, since the conquest of Samarkand occurred in 93/711 by Qutayba b. Muslim, and Hudayn b. Mundhir was present in a meeting of Qutayba in the same year,[16] where he recited one of his poems to the effect that he was then 90 years old.[17] Thus, Abu Yaqzan Suhaym b. Hafs's (d. 190/805) remark that Hudayn was 19 years old when he attended the Battle of Siffin is inaccurate.[18]

In the Battle of Siffin, 'Ali's (a) flag was in Hudayn's hand and he was appointed as the head of the Bakr b. Wa'il tribe.[19] This appointment is considered to be a valuable plan by Imam 'Ali (a).[20] Hudayn's courage and resistance in the Battle of Siffin and the harmonious waving of the flag in his hand motivated Imam 'Ali (a) to compose poems which are available in sources.[21] The flag in Hudayn's hand was red or black.[22] When the conspiracy of putting volumes of the Quran on spears transpired and there was a dispute among the companions of Imam 'Ali (a) in the Battle of Siffin, Hudayn was one of the first people who defended 'Ali (a) in a short and eloquent speech, calling people for an unconditional obedience of Imam 'Ali (a).[23]

During his reign, Imam 'Ali (a) appointed Hudayn as the ruler of Istakhr.[24]

However, it is said that Umayyad rulers also consulted Hudayn in their affairs and sometimes asked him for help, which is referred to in some of Hudaym's poems.[25]

Transmission of Hadiths

Hudayn transmitted hadiths from Imam 'Ali (a), 'Uthman b. 'Affan, Mujashi' b. Mas'ud, and Abu Musa al-Ash'ari. His son, Yahya, Hasan al-Basri, and 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Mu'ammar have transmitted hadiths from him.[26] Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani[27] quoted Ibn Sa'd as saying that Hudayn transmitted few hadiths, but this is not accurate, since Ibn Sa'd's[28] remark is concerned with Abu Sa'id al-Qays al-Raqashi, Hudayn's servant. Abu l-Hasan al-Mada'ini has quoted Hudayn as saying that Imam al-Hasan (a) was poisoned as a conspiracy of Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan.[29]

Notes

  1. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 14, p. 396-397; Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, under the word "Hidn".
  2. Ibn Ḥazm, Jumhurat ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 317.
  3. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 2, p. 360.
  4. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 6, p. 511.
  5. Ibn Manjawayh, Rijāl Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, vol. 1, p. 139.
  6. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 6, p. 556; Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 6, p. 126.
  7. Ibn Makūlā, al-Ikmāl, vol. 2, p. 481; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 6, p. 556.
  8. Jāḥiz, al-Bayān wa al-tabyīn, vol. 2, p. 19; Ibn Qutayba, ʿUyūn al-akhbār, vol. 1, part. 1, p. 161; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 5, p. 244.
  9. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 194.
  10. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-ṣaghīr, vol. 1, p. 282.
  11. Ibn Manjawayh, Rijāl Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, vol. 1, p. 139.
  12. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, vol. 7, p. 11.
  13. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 195.
  14. Barqī, Kitāb al-Rijāl, p. 3.
  15. Mufīd, al-Jumal, p. 320; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 6, p. 558.
  16. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 14, p. 399-400.
  17. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 194.
  18. Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, under the word "Hidn".
  19. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 6, p. 557.
  20. Jāḥiz, al-Bayān wa al-tabyīn, vol. 3, p. 108.
  21. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 289-290; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 5, p. 226-227.
  22. Mufīd, al-Jumal, p. 320; Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, under the word "Hidn".
  23. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 485-486; Iskāfī, al-Miʿyār wa al-muwāzina, p. 167.
  24. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 14, p. 396; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 6, p. 557.
  25. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 6, p. 395-396.
  26. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 6, p. 556-557.
  27. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 2, p. 360.
  28. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 212.
  29. Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 16, p. 17.

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