Habba b. Juwayn al-'Urani

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Companion of Imam (a)
Habba b. Juwayn al-'Urani
Full Name Habba b. Juwayn al-'Urani
Companion of Imam Ali (a)
Teknonym Abu Qudama
Lineage Bajila
Place(s) of Residence Kufa
Death/Martyrdom 76/695-6

Ḥabba b. Juwayn al-ʿUranī (Arabic: حَبَّة بن جُوَین العُرَنی) was a narrator of hadith and a companion of Imam 'Ali (a). Al-Shaykh al-Tusi mentioned him as a companion of Imam al-Hasan (a) as well.

In the event of 'Uthman b. 'Affan's murder, he was present in Medina, and was one of the first people who pledged their allegiance to Imam Ali (a). He died in 76/695-6 during the caliphate of 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan.

Tribe and Lineage

He is from 'Urayna, a clan of the Bajila tribe, and thus he came to be known as 'Urani (attributed to 'Urayna) and Bajali[1] (attributed to Bajila). The name of his father is mentioned as Juwayh,[2] Huwayh,[3] and Juwayr,[4] all of which are probably distorted forms of Juwayn. He was from Kufa, and was also known as al-Kufi.[5] It is said that he met the Prophet Muhammad (s)[6] and thus he also counts as one of the companion,[7] but he is mostly known as one of the Tabi'un.[8]

As a Shia

Habba al-'Urani was a Shia (follower) and a close companion of Imam 'Ali (a).[9] According to al-Ya'qubi,[10] he was a knowledgeable companion of the Imam (a). According to al-Shaykh al-Tusi,[11] he was also a companion of Imam al-Hasan (a). Habba al-'Urani was present in Medina in the event of 'Uthman b. 'Affan's murder, and he was one of the first people who pledged their allegiance to Imam 'Ali (a).[12] He was present in the army of Imam 'Ali (a) in the Battle of Jamal, and reported the battle.[13] Habba went to al-Mada'in in the lifetime of Hudhayfa b. Yaman (d. 37/657-8), and heard from him a hadith from the Prophet (s) prognosticating 'Ammar b. Yasir's martyrdom.[14] Habba accompanied Imam 'Ali (a) in the Battle of Siffin as well,[15] and witnessed the martyrdom of 'Ammar in Siffin, and confirmed the truth of Hudhayfa's hadith.[16] After that, he accompanied Imam 'Ali (a) in the Battle of Nahrawan.[17]

Narration of Hadiths

Some hadiths narrated by Habba al-'Urani are subject to controversies between Shias and Sunnis, including a hadith narrated by him according to which in the Battle of Siffin, 80 people who had attended the Battle of Badr fought for Imam 'Ali (a).[18] Al-Dhahabi rejected this as impossible,[19] and Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani considered this hadith to be a reason for the unreliability of Habba.[20]

Habba also narrated Hadith al-Ghadir.[21] But some scholars doubted the accuracy of this narration, since Habba is quoted as saying at the end of the hadith that he was a polytheist on the Day of Ghadir, whereas one year before Hajjat al-Wida' (the Farewell Hajj), the Prophet (s) had forbidden the attendance of polytheists in hajj together with Muslims.[22] Shushtari[23] considered the possibility that Habba did not attend the hajj, but he later joined the caravans on their way back, and thus attended the Event of Ghadir. One of the best known hadiths narrated by Habba from Imam 'Ali (a) is the one in which the Imam (a) introduced himself as the first Muslim and the first person who said prayers with the Prophet (s).[24] Habba al-'Urani narrated hadiths from Imam 'Ali (a), 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud, Hudhayfa b. Yaman and 'Ammar b. Yasir.

Salama b. Kuhayl, Abu l-Miqdam Thabit b. Hurmuz, Muslim al-Mula'i, and some others narrated hadiths from Habba.[25]

From the Viewpoint of the Scholars of 'Ilm al-Rijal

Most Sunni scholars of 'ilm al-rijal considered Habba to be unreliable.[26] Al-Dhahabi[27] took him to be a Ghali (exaggerating) Shia because he took Imam 'Ali (a) to be superior to the first two caliphs. Ibn Hibban mentioned Habba in his book, al-Thiqat[28] (the reliable narrators), but took him to be unreliable. Some Sunni scholars took him to be in the middle or reliable.[29] According to Ibn 'Adi,[30] there is scarcely an odd hadith from Habba, and while there was consensus over his unreliability, his hadiths were transcribed in hadith collections. According to Shiite scholars of 'ilm al-rijal, such as Ibn Dawud al-Hilli[31] citing the books of al-Shaykh al-Tusi and al-Kashshi, he was praised, although he is not mentioned in al-Kashshi's book.[32]

Death

Habba al-'Urani died in 76/695-6 during the caliphate of 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan and after the entrance of Hajjaj b. Yusuf al-Thaqafi in Iraq.[33] There was a mosque there known as Habba al-'Urani.[34]

Notes

  1. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 177; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 3, p. 253; Samʿānī, al-Ansāb, vol. 4, p. 182.
  2. Rāmhurmuzī, al-Muḥaddith al-fāṣil, p. 277.
  3. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 60.
  4. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 94, note 1.
  5. Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh Madīnat al-salām, vol. 9, p. 197.
  6. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 8.
  7. Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 1, p. 367.
  8. ʿIjlī, Maʿārifat al-thiqāt, vol. 1, p. 281; Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh Madīnat al-salām, vol. 9, p. 197; Dhahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, vol. 1, p. 450.
  9. Barqī, Kitāb al-Rijāl, p. 6; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 60; Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām wa wafayāt, vol. 2, p. 807.
  10. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 214.
  11. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 94.
  12. Mufīd, al-Jumal wa al-nuṣra, p. 109.
  13. Mufīd, al-Jumal wa al-nuṣra, p. 382; Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 143.
  14. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 38-39.
  15. Kūfī, Manāqib al-Imām Amīr al-Muʾminīn, vol. 1, p. 144.
  16. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 39.
  17. Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh Madīnat al-salām, vol. 9, p. 197; Dhahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, vol. 1, p. 450.
  18. Dhahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, vol. 1, p. 450; Kūfī, Manāqib al-Imām Amīr al-Muʾminīn, vol. 2, p. 544; Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak ʿala l-ṣaḥīḥayn, vol. 3, p. 104.
  19. Dhahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, vol. 1, p. 450.
  20. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 2, p. 141.
  21. Dāraquṭnī, al-ʿIlal al-wārida, vol. 3, p. 225-226; Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 1, p. 64.
  22. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 1, p. 367-368; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 2, p. 140.
  23. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 76.
  24. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 21; Ibn Abī Shayba, al-Muṣannaf, vol. 8, p. 43; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 86; Kūfī, Manāqib al-Imām Amīr al-Muʾminīn, vol. 1, p. 269, 281; Nasā'ī, Sunan al-kubrā, vol. 5, p. 105; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 1, p. 291, 297-299.
  25. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 177; Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-kabīr, vol. 2, part 1, p. 93; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 3, p. 253; Ibn Ḥibbān, Kitab al-thiqāt, vol. 4, p. 182; Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh Madīnat al-salām, vol. 9, p. 197.
  26. Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 3, p. 253; ʿAqīlī, al-Ḍuʿafā al-kabīr, p. 295-296; Ibn ʿUday, al-Kāmil min ḍuʿafā al-rijāl, vol. 2, p. 429.
  27. Dhahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, vol. 1, p. 450.
  28. Ibn Ḥibbān, Kitab al-thiqāt, vol. 4, p. 182.
  29. ʿIjlī, Maʿārifat al-thiqāt, vol. 1, p. 281; Ṭabarānī, Kitāb al-awāʾil, p. 78; Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh Madīnat al-salām, vol. 9, p. 199-200; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 2, p. 141.
  30. Ibn ʿUday, al-Kāmil min ḍuʿafā al-rijāl, vol. 2, p. 430.
  31. Ibn Dāwūd al-Ḥillī, Kitāb al-rijāl, p. 69.
  32. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 4, p. 214.
  33. Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh Madīnat al-salām, vol. 9, p. 190-201.
  34. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 42, p. 359; Dhahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, vol. 1, p. 484.

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