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Shaddad b. Aws

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Sahaba
Shaddad b. Aws
Personal Information
Full Name Shaddad b. Aws b. Thabit al-Ansari al-Najjari al-Madani
Teknonym Abu Ya'la and Abu 'Abd al-Rahman
Lineage Banu Hudayla
Well-Known Relatives Hassan b. Thabit
Muhajir/Ansar Ansar
Place(s) of Residence Medina, Al-Quds
Death/Martyrdom 58/677-8
Burial Place Al-Quds
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas Battle of Badr
Migration to Al-Quds
Notable Roles Ruler of Homs

Shaddād b. Aws b. Thābit al-Anṣārī al-Najjārī al-Madanī (Arabic: شَدّاد بن أوس بن ثابت انصاري النجاري المدني) was a narrator of hadith and a companion of the Prophet (s). He was from the Banu Hudayla tribe and was the nephew of the best-known poet of the early Islam, Hassan b. Thabit. There is disagreement about his presence in the battles of the Prophet (s). On some accounts, he participated in the Battle of Badr. Ibn Sa'd reported that Shaddad immigrated to Jerusalem al-Quds and stayed there for the rest of his life. There is some evidence that he had tendencies to the 'Alawis, and when Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan asked him to curse Imam Ali (a) on pulpit, he refused to do so.

Lineage

Shaddad was from the Banu Hudayla tribe and his lineage goes back to 'Amr b. Malik b. Najjar.[1] He was the nephew of Hassan b. Thabit, the well-known poet of the early Islam.[2]

Shaddad's father was one of the Ansar who were present in the Pledge of 'Aqaba.[3] According to Ibn Sa'd, when Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina, 'Uthman stayed in the house of Aws b. Thabit—Shaddad's father. After the migration, the Prophet (s) made pacts of brotherhood between people from the Muhajirun and people from the Ansar; he made a Pact of Brotherhood between Aws b. Thabit and 'Uthman.

According to al-Waqidi, Aws participate in the Battle of Badr and other battles of the Prophet (s). He died during the caliphate of 'Uthman b. 'Affan in 35/655, as reported by Ibn Habban. However, according to a report by Ibn Sa'd and Ibn 'Abd al-Barr from 'Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. 'Amara al-Ansari, Aws was martyred in the Battle of Uhud. There is a poem by Hassan b. Thabit regarding the martyrdom of Aws b. Thabit that confirms the latter account. His mother, Surayma or Surama, was from Banu 'Adyayn al-Najjar.

Shaddad had four sons called Ya'la, Muhammad, 'Abd al-Wahhab, and Mundhir, and a daughter called Khazraj.[4]6 His teknonyms were Abu Ya'la and Abu 'Abd al-Rahman.[5]

Participating in the Prophet's (s) Battles

There is disagreement about whether Shaddad b. Aws participated in the Prophet's (s) battles. On some accounts, he participated in the Battle of Badr, but al-Bukhari[6] cast doubts on such accounts. He was known for his piety and his contemporaries praised him for this character.[7]

There are stories about his worships and asceticism.[8]

Rule of Homs

After the Conquest of Syria in the period of the Second Caliph, Shaddad was appointed as the ruler of Homs.[9]

Immigration to Al-Quds

Ibn Sa'd[10] reported that Shaddad immigrated to al-Quds without mentioning the exact date. According to him, Shaddad lived there for the rest of his life.[11]

Masters and Narrators

Shaddad narrated hadiths from Ka'b al-Ahbar. Usama b. 'Umayr al-Hudhali, Khalid b. Mi'dan, his sons, Muhammad and Ya'la, and others narrated hadiths from Shaddad.[12] His hadiths are cited in al-Sihah al-Sitta.[13]

Political Positions and Theological Tendencies

Little is known about Shaddad's political positions and theological tendencies. According to some evidence, he had tendencies to Imam Ali (a).[14] When Mu'awiya asked him to curse Imam 'Ali (a) on minbar, he refused to do so.[15] He also helped Imam 'Ali (a) in the Battle of Jamal and narrated hadiths regarding the virtues of Imam 'Ali (a).[16] These reports support his tendencies to the 'Alawis.

Death

Shaddad passed away in 58/677-8 in Jerusalem al-Quds at the age of seventy five, and was buried there.[17]

The Progeny

Abu Hatam al-Razi[18] mentioned Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Rahman as Shaddad's grandson. He lived in al-Quds. He narrated hadiths from his father and his grandfather, Shaddad b. Aws. Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. Yusuf al-Faryabi narrated hadiths from him.[19]

Notes

  1. Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Kitāb al-ṭabaqāt, p. 156; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 1, p. 117; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 22, p. 405-417.
  2. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 503; vol. 7, p. 401; Rāzī, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 2, part 1, p. 328.
  3. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 503; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 1, p. 117
  4. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 22, p. 409; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 12, p. 392.
  5. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 694; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 3, p. 319.
  6. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-kabīr, vol. 2, part 2, p. 223.
  7. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 694-695; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 22, p. 410.
  8. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 22, p. 415-416; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 12, p. 391.
  9. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 12, p. 390.
  10. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 401.
  11. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 694.
  12. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 1, p. 390.
  13. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 12, p. 392.
  14. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 22, p. 416.
  15. Mufīd, Kitāb al-amālī, p. 96-97.
  16. Khazzāz al-Qummī, Kifāyat al-athar fī l-naṣṣ ʿalā l-aʾimmat al-ithnā ʿashar, p. 180-182.
  17. Ibn Ḥibbān, Kitab al-Thiqāt, vol. 3, p. 185-186; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 12, p. 392; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 401.
  18. Rāzī Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 3, part 2, p. 315.
  19. Rāzī Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 2, part 1, p. 328.

References

  • Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-. Tārīkh al-kabīr. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, [n.d].
  • Ḥassan b. Thābit. Dīwān-i Ḥassan b. Thābit al-Anṣārī. Edited by Yusuf ʿId. Beirut: 1412 AH-1992.
  • Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Cairo: [n.d].
  • Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-ṣaḥāba. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Beirut: 1412 AH/1992.
  • Ibn Ḥibbān, Muḥammad. Kitab al-Thiqāt. Hyderabad Deccan: [n.d].
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Beirut: [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ibn ʿAsākir, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan. Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: [n.d].
  • Khazzāz al-Qummī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Kifāyat al-athar fī l-naṣṣ ʿalā l-aʾimmat al-ithnā ʿashar. Edited by ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Ḥusaynī Kūhkamaraʾī Khoeī. Qom: 1401 AH.
  • Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ. Kitāb al-ṭabaqāt. Edited by Suhayl Zukār. Beirut: 1414 AH-1993.
  • Mizzī, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-. Tahdhīb al-kamāl fī ʾasmāʾ al-rijāl. Edited by Bashār ʿAwād Maʿrūf. Beirut: 1422 AH-2002.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Kitāb al-amālī. Edited by Ḥusayn Ustād Walī and ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: 1403 AH.
  • Rāzī Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad. Al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl. Hyderabad Deccan: 1373 AH/1953 CE.