Bakkā'ūn (Arabic: البكاؤون) or Weepers were a group of the Prophet's companions who came to be known thus because they wept over their failure to attend the Battle of Tabuk. On one hadith, Adam (a), Jacob (a), Joseph (a), Fatima (a), and Imam Zayn al-'Abidin (a) are also known as Bakka'un.
Seven People from the Companions
Bakka'un were seven poor people from the companions who asked the Prophet (s) for a horse so that they could attend the Battle of Tabuk. The Prophet told them that he had no vehicle, so he could not take them to the battle. They were sad that they could not attend the battle and wept. When they wanted to return, some of the companions gave them vehicles and took them to the battle. Their names are variously mentioned in different sources, and they came to be known as “Bakka'un.” The battle of Tabuk occurred in 9/630 during an unbearable heat, and because of the poverty of the companions, they came to be known as “Jaysh al-'Usra” (Arabic: جیش العسرة, the Army of Hardhship). In this battle, vehicles and weapons were supplied by warriors themselves.
According to some Quranic exegetes, the verse "Nor [is there any blame] on those to whom, when they came to you to provide them with a mount, you said, ‘I do not find any mount for you,’ and they turned back, their eyes flowing with tears, grieved because they did not find any means to spend." was revealed about them, although there are other possible interpretations of the verse as well.
The Other Five
According to a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a), Bakka'un are five: Adam (a) when he was expelled from the Heaven, Jacob (a) when he was away from his son Joseph (a), Joseph (a) when he was away from his father Jacob (a), Fatima (a) for the tragedy of the demise of her father Prophet Muhammad (s), and Imam Zayn al-'Abidin (a) in tragedies of the Event of Ashura.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from بکائین in Farsi WikiShia.