Imam Ali b. al-Husayn al-Sajjad (a)

This article is featured on November 9, 2015. For other featured articles click here.
Good article since September 13, 2016
Priority: aa, Quality: b
From wikishia
(Redirected from Sayyid al-Sajidin (a))
'Ali b. al-Husayn
4th Imam of the Shia
Al-Baqi' Cemetery
TeknonymAbu l-Hasan
BornSha'ban 5, 38/January 6, 659
ImamateFrom Muharram 10, 61/October 10, 680(for 34 years)
MartyrdomMuharram 25, 95/October 20, 713 in Medina
Cause of Martyrdomby Poisoning
The Twelve Imams
PredecessorAl-Husayn b. 'Ali (a)
SuccessorMuhammad b. 'Ali al-Baqir
Fatheral-Husayn b. 'Ali (a)
MotherShahrbanu (?)
Brother(s)'Ali al-Akbar, 'Abd Allah
Sister(s)Sukayna, Fatima, Ruqayya
Spouse(s)Umm 'Abd Allah
Son(s)Muhammad, 'Abd Allah, Zayd, ...
'Ali, al-Hasan, al-Husayn, al-Sajjad, al-Baqir, al-Sadiq, al-Kazim, al-Rida, al-Jawad, al-Hadi, al-'Askari, al-Mahdi

ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. ʾAbī Ṭālib (Arabic: عَليّ بن الحُسَین بن علي بن أبي طالب) (b. 38/659 – d. 95/713) known as Imām al-Sajjād (امام السجاد, lit. the Consistently Prostrating) and Zayn al-ʿAbidīn (زين العابدين, lit. Adornment of the Worshippers) is the fourth Imam of Shi'a. The period of his imamate was 34 years. He (a) was present in the Battle of Karbala but did not participate in the battle because of sickness and was not martyred. He (a) was taken captive to Kufa and Damascus together with other captives of Karbala. His speech at the presence of Umayyad caliphs created awareness among people about the position of the Ahl al-Bayt (a). After being released, he (a) stayed in Medina until the end of his life. The event of Harra, Tawwabun movement and the uprising of al-Mukhtar happened at his time; however there is no reliable report of his opinions about them.

Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is a compilation of his supplications which reflect the picture of the society that day and the true path of life through the education of the religion and the Qur'an and purification of souls and connecting souls to God. Risalat al-huquq (Treatise on Rights) is his other work which is a short treatise containing duties a human being has.

He (a) was poisoned and martyred by order of al-Walid b. 'Abd al-Malik. He (a) was buried in al-Baqi' cemetery beside his uncle Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a).


'Ali b. al-Husayn b. 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), known as Imam al-Sajjad (a) and Imam Zayn al-'Abidin, is the son of Imam al-Husayn (a). He is the fourth Imam of Shi'a.

Among disagreements about Imam al-Sajjad (a) was the name and lineage of his mother, different names have been mentioned for her including Shahrbanu, Shahrbanuyeh, Shah-i Zanan,[1] Jahanshah, Khawla, Salafa, Ghazzala, Salama, Harrar, Maryam, Fatima. Accordingly, Sayyid Ja'far Shahidi wrote that "among the names mentioned for her, Shahrbanu is more famous. Her father is said to be Yazdgerd, the last Sassanid emperor; or Nushjan from Khurasan, or Shiruyih, son of Parviz, among which Yazdgerd is more famous." He does not believe that the mother of Imam al-Sajjad (a) would be a person having such a description mentioning some reasons and shreds of evidence.[2] He says, "If we ignore this myth about her and check authentic books, we reach a clearer point: Ibn Sa'd wrote that after the martyrdom of al-Husayn (a), Zuyayd, his freed servant married the mother of 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) and 'Abd Allah b. Zuyayd was born, thus 'Abd Allah was 'Ali b. al-Husayn's (a) brother from his mother.[3] Al-Shaykh al-Saduq wrote, "Mother of 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) was the daughter of Yazdgerd, son of Shahriyar, the king of Persians, passed away while giving birth to him."[4]

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
'Abd Allah
Lady Fatima
Imam Ali
Umm al-Banin
Imam al-Husayn
Imam al-Hasan
Lady Zaynab
Umm Kulthum
Abd Allah
Umm Kulthum
'Abd Allah
'Abd Allah
Imam al-Sajjad
'Ali al-Akbar
'Ali al-Asghar
Imam al-Baqir
Imam al-Sadiq
'Abd Allah
'Ubayd Allah
Imam al-Kazim
Umm Farwa
'Abd Allah
Imam al-Rida
Imam al-Jawad
Imam al-Hadi
Imam al-'Askari
Imam al-Mahdi

Titles and Teknonyms

Imam al-Sajjad's (a) teknonyms were Abu l-Hasan, Abu l-Husayn, Abu Muhammad, and Abu 'Abd Allah.[5]

His titles are Zayn al-'Abidin (adornment of the worshipers), Sayyid al-Sajidin (master of the prostrators), al-Sajjad (the frequently prostrating one), al-Hashimi, al-'Alawi, al-Madani, al-Qurashi, and 'Ali al-Akbar.[6] Dhu l-Thafanat is another title of Imam al-Sajjad (a) since the skin of the prostration points of his body [knees, palms, and forehead] had become hardened, and there were calluses on them like the knees of camels due to praying a lot.[7]

Imam al-Sajjad (a) was also known by other names at his time, such as 'Ali al-Khayr, 'Ali al-Asghar, and 'Ali al-'Abid.[8]

Birth and Martyrdom

According to the famous opinion, Imam al-Sajjad (a) was born in 38/659; thus, he (a) has seen a part of Imam 'Ali's (a) life, the imamate of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) and Mu'awiya's attempt in suppressing Shi'a in Iraq and elsewhere. However, in some reports, the age of Imam (a) is mentioned less than what is famous and the time of his birth is about 48/668.[9] Although such reports have been mentioned in different sources, there are pieces of evidence that do not let one believe them; such as the fact that famously historians and biographers have mentioned the birth time of Imam al-Sajjad (a) 38/659, which implies that his age in the Battle of Karbala was 23 years old.

After narrating from Imam al-Sadiq (a) saying, "'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) passed away at the age of 58", the Sunni narrator of historical reports, Muhammad b. 'Umar al-Waqidi wrote that, "this report suggests that Imam al-Sajjad (a) was with his father in Karbala while he (a) was 23 or 24 years old."[10] Also al-Zahri said that 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) was with his father while he was 23 years old.[11]

Imam al-Sajjad (a) was martyred in 94/713 (or 95/714) with a poison given by the order of al-Walid b. 'Abd al-Malik.[12] He (a) was buried in al-Baqi' cemetery beside his uncle, Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a).[13]

Wives and Children

In historical sources, the number of Imam al-Sajjad's (a) children has been counted as fifteen, eleven of whom were boys, and four of whom were girls.[14] According to al-Shaykh al-Mufid, the names of his wives and children were:

  1. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a) whose mother was Umm 'Abd Allah (Imam al-Hasan's (a) daughter).
  2. 'Abd Allah
  3. Al-Hasan
  4. Al-Husayn al-Akbar: The mother of 'Abd Allah, al-Hasan and al-Husayn Akbar was a maid.
  5. Zayd
  6. 'Umar: The mother of Zayd and 'Umar was a maid.
  7. Al-Husayn al-Asghar
  8. 'Abd al-Rahman
  9. Sulayman: The mother of 'Umar, al-Husayn al-Asghar, and Sulayman was a maid.
  10. 'Ali: who was Imam al-Sajjad's (a) smallest child.
  11. Khadija: whose mother was also the mother of 'Ali.
  12. Al-Muhammad al-Asghar: whose mother was a maid.
  13. Fatima
  14. 'Illiyya
  15. Umm Kulthum: The mother of Fatima, 'Illiyya and Umm Kulthum was a maid.[15]


Imamate of Imam al-Sajjad (a) began after the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a) in 61/680 and continued until his own martyrdom in 94/712 or 95/713.

Proofs for Imamate

Based on clear hadiths narrated in Shi'a sources, Imam al-Sajjad (a) was the successor of his father al-Husayn b. 'Ali (a).[16] Al-Shaykh al-Mufid mentioned his superiority in knowledge and practice over others after his father as the proof for his imamate.[17]

Also, hadiths narrated from the Prophet (s) about the names of Imams of Shi'a contain Imam al-Sajjad's (a) name.[18]

Moreover, according to Shi'a references, there was a tradition that belongings of the Prophet (s) such as his sword and armor would be with the rightful Imam (a) of the time,[19] and it is even mentioned in Sunni references that Imam al-Sajjad (a) kept them with himself.[20]

Contemporary Rulers

  1. Yazid b. Mu'awiya (60/680–64/683)
  2. 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr (64/684–73/692) who was the independent ruler of Mecca
  3. Mu'awiya b. Yazid (few months in 64/683-4)
  4. Marwan b. al-Hakam (9 months in 64-65/684-5)
  5. 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan (65/685–86/705)
  6. Al-Walid b. 'Abd al-Malik (86/705–96/714-5)[21]

Battle of Karbala and Captivity

In the Battle of Karbala and on the day Imam al-Husayn (a) and his companions were martyred, Imam al-Sajjad (a) was severely sick so that in some cases when they wanted to kill him, some said, "This sickness is enough for him."[22]


After the tragedy of Karbala, they captured the family of Imam al-Husayn (a) and took them to Kufa and Damascus. Upon taking them from Karbala to Kufa, they put Jami'a [hand-to-neck chains] on him and since he was sick and could not keep sitting on the back of the camel, they fastened his feet under the belly of the camel.[23]

Some accounts say that Imam al-Sajjad (a) gave a speech in Kufa, but it is hard to accept that due to the restricted situation in Kufa, the cruelty of government agents, the fear of the people of Kufa from them, and their unsupportive manner. Moreover, the sentences narrated from him in his speech in Kufa are similar to those he (a) said in his speech in the mosque of Damascus and it is possible that some narrators have mixed them up. [24]

In any case, 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad kept Imam al-Sajjad (a) and other captives of Karbala in prison and wrote a letter to Damascus and asked Yazid what to do with them. Yazid replied and ordered him to send captives and the heads of the martyrs of Karbala to Damascus. 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad put shackles on Imam's (a) neck and sent him and other captives with Muhaffar b. Tha'laba to Damascus.[25]


Imam al-Sajjad (a) gave a speech in the mosque of Damascus and introduced himself, his father, and his grandfather to people and told the people of Damascus that what Yazid and his agents have propagated are not true. His father was not a rebel and did not want to disturb the Muslim community and make mischief in Islamic lands. He (a) rose for truth and, by invitation of Muslims to remove heresies brought up in religion and bring the simplicity and purity it had at the time of his grandfather.[26]

Return to Medina

Imam al-Sajjad (a) lived 34 years after the Battle of Karbala and always made efforts to keep the memory of the martyrs of Karbala alive.

Whenever he (a) drank water, he remembered his father and wept on the hardships of Imam al-Husayn (a). It is mentioned in a narration from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that, "Imam al-Sajjad (a) wept forty years upon his honorable father, while he (a) was fasting the days and praying the nights. At the time of breaking his fasting, when his servant took food and water for him, he (a) said, '[grand]son of the Prophet (s) was martyred hungry! [grand]son of the Prophet (s) was martyred thirsty!' He (a) frequently repeated this and wept so that his tears were mixed with his food and drink. He (a) was in such a state until when he (a) passed away."[27]

Contemporary Uprisings

At the time of Imam al-Sajjad (a) after the Battle of Karbala, different movements were made, the most important ones of which were:

Event of Harra

Some years after the Battle of Karbala, people of Medina organized the uprising of Harra against Umayyads in 63/683. People of the city pledged allegiance with 'Abd Allah b. Hanzala whose father was known as Ghasil al-Mala'ika (the one washed by angels) and first besieged Umayyads who were about 1,000 people in the house of Marwan b. Hakam and then pushed them out of the city.[28] Imam al-Sajjad (a) stepped away from the uprising since its beginning because he (a) knew its destiny.[29]

In the heat of the uprising of Harra, Marwan b. Hakam who was an enemy of the Ahl al-Bayt (s) went to 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar and asked him to guard his family with his, but 'Abd Allah did not accept. When Marwan became disappointed with his support, he resorted to Imam al-Sajjad (a). Imam (a) accepted his request with great benevolence and sent Marwan's family together with his own family to Yanbu' (a spring near Medina on the right side of Radwa mountain).[30]

In this event, Imam (a) accepted the responsibility of guarding 400 families and paid all their expenses while the army of Muslim b. 'Aqaba (the commander of Yazid's army in the event of Harra) was in Medina.[31]

Tawwabun Uprising

Tawwabun movement was another movement after the Battle of Karbala, the leader of which was Sulayman b. Surad al-Khuza'i together with some other distinguished Shi'a personalities of Kufa. In general, Tawwabun were about to hand the leadership of the society to the Ahl al-Bayt (a) in case they could win, and obviously, there was no one from the progeny of Fatima (a) except Imam al-Sajjad (a). However, there was no political relationship between Imam al-Sajjad (a) and Tawwabun.[32]

Mukhtar's Uprising

Mukhtar's uprising was the third important movement after the Battle of Karbala, about the relation of Imam al-Sajjad (a) and this movement there are some doubts. This relation not only has some political problems, but it also has some problems regarding ideological aspects (following Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya by al-Mukhtar). It is said that after Mukhtar succeeded in attracting Shi'a to himself in Kufa, he asked Imam al-Sajjad (a) for help, but Imam (a) did not face him with open arms.[33]

Merits and Virtues


Malik b. Anas said, "Ali b. al-Husayn (a) made a thousand Rak'a prayers every day before he (a) passed away. Thus, he (a) was called Zayn al-'Abidin (adornment of the worshipers)."[34]

Ibn 'Abd Rabbih wrote, "When 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) became ready for prayer, he (a) would strangely tremble. He (a) was asked about it and said, 'woe betide you! Do you know whom I am going to stand in front of and before whom I am going to pray?'"[35]

Malik b. Anas said, "When 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) put on Ihram and said Talbiya, he went unconscious and fell from his conveyance (from the awe of Allah)."[36]

Helping the Poor

Abu Hamza al-Thumali said, "Every night 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) secretly carried some food on his shoulder to the poor and said, 'the charity made at the darkness of the night appeases the wrath of God.'"[37]

Muhammad b. Ishaq said, "There were people living in Medina unknowing how their daily provision was provided; and after 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) passed away, their night food delivery stopped."[38]

At night, he (a) put baskets of bread on his shoulder and went to the houses of the poor and said, "The charity made secretly appeases the wrath of God." Those baskets had left marks on his shoulders, and when they were washing his body after he (a) passed away, they saw those marks.[39] Ibn Sa'd wrote, "When a poor person came to him, he (a) went and gave the poor what he wanted and said, 'before charity reaches the asking one, it reaches God's hand.'"[40]

One year he (a) wanted to go for hajj. His sister Sukayna prepared a provision pack for his travel worth a thousand dirham. When he (a) arrived in Harra, they took that provision to him, and Imam (a) distributed it among all the poor.[41]

Imam al-Sajjad (a) has a poor cousin. He (a) went to him at night in a way he did not recognize him and gave him some dinars. His cousin said, " 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) does not care about his relatives, May God punish him." Imam (a) heard this and forbore and did not show his face to his cousin. When Imam (a) passed away, and nightly donation of that man was stopped, he realized the donator was actually 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a), so he went to Imam's (a) grave and cried.[42]

Abu Na'im wrote, "Imam al-Sajjad (a) distributed all his property among the poor twice and said, 'God loves a repenting faithful servant.'"[43] Elsewhere, he wrote, "People regarded him ungenerous and when he (a) passed away, they learned that he (a) provided the expenses of a hundred families.[44] When a beggar came to him, he (a) said, 'blessed be the one who carries my provision to the hereafter.'"[45]

Behavior towards Slaves

One of the efforts of Imam al-Sajjad (a), which was religious and also political, was paying attention to slaves; people who were under the greatest social pressures, especially after the time of the second caliph ('Umar b. al-Khattab) and especially at the time of Umayyads and they were among the most deprived people in the Islamic society in first centuries.

Like Imam 'Ali (a) who attracted Mawali [freed servants] in Iraq to himself with his Islamic behavior, Imam al-Sajjad (a) tried to promote the social dignity of these people.

Sayyid al-Ahl wrote, "Imam al-Sajjad (a) bought slaves even though he (a) did not need them. He (a) bought them only to free them. Slaves who saw this intention of Imam (a) wanted him to buy them. Imam al-Sajjad (a) released them at any time or situation so that many people, like an army of released servants, men and women were seen in Medina who were all the freed servants of Imam (a)."[46]


Al-Shaykh al-Mufid wrote, "Sunni scholars narrated many sciences from Imam al-Sajjad (a) and many supplications, pieces of advice, [hadiths] in the merit of the Qur'an, halal [the permissible] and haram [the forbidden], wars and days [of history] are left from him which are known to scholars."[47] Up to 300 hadiths have been narrated from Imam al-Sajjad (a) in the Four Books of the Shi'a.

Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya

Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya is the collection of Imam al-Sajjad's (a) supplications and a mirror in which the picture of the society at that time, especially Medina, can be seen: his aversion to bad behaviors and speech of people at that time and taking refuge to God from what he (a) saw and heard, and clarifying the right path under the guidance of religion and the Qur'an and purification of souls from pollutions; as if Imam (a) wanted as much as possible to disconnect people from Satan and connect them to God. Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya has been translated into several languages.

Risalat al-huquq

Risalat al-huquq is one of the works attributed to Imam al-Sajjad (a). In this treatise, 51 different rights (or 50 according to some versions) are listed. This treatise has been translated into English and other languages.

Some of the rights listed in this treatise are:

  1. Rights of God
  2. Rights of the self
  3. Rights of tongue
  4. Rights of prayer
  5. Rights of charity
  6. Rights of the teacher
  7. Rights of people
  8. Rights of wife
  9. Rights of the mother
  10. Rights of the father
  11. Rights of children
  12. Rights of the brother
  13. Rights of servants
  14. Rights of associates
  15. Rights of the neighbor
  16. Rights of the loan-taker
  17. Rights of the enemy
  18. Rights of the one who makes you happy
  19. Rights of the one who treats you badly
  20. Rights of the people you owe to

Supplication of Abu Hamza al-Thumali

Imam al-Sajjad (a) would recite this supplication in dawns of the month of Ramadan which is narrated by Abu Hamza al-Thumali. It contains transcendental concepts and eloquent statements.

Ziyarah Amin Allah

Ziyarah Amin Allah is a ziyarah that Imam al-Sajjad (a) has recited when visiting the grave of Imam Ali (a).


Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned the number of Imam's (a) companions as 170. The following individuals can be mentioned among his most prominent companions and students:

Words of Sunni Scholars

Muhammad b. Muslim al-Zuhri: "I found no Hashemite greater or more knowledgeable than him in jurisprudence."[48]Al-Shafi'i said, "He (a) was the most knowledgeable in jurisprudence in Medina."[49]

Al-Jahiz said, "I saw no one have any doubt about his merits or about his superiority."[50]


  1. Mufid, al-Irshad, vol. 2 p. 137
  2. Shadidi, Zindigani 'Ali b. al-Husayn, p. 10-26
  3. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 5 p. 162
  4. Saduq, 'Uyun akhbar al-Rida, vol. 2 p. 128
  5. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 4, p. 386; Kasrawi, Mawsu'a, vol. 3 p. 64; Al-Razi, al-Jarh wa l-ta'dil, vol. 6 p. 178; Al-Dulabi, al-Kuna wa l-asma' , vol. 1 p. 147; Al-Suyuti, Tabaqat al-huffaz, p. 37
  6. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 4, p. 386; Kasrawi, Mawsu'a, vol. 3 p. 64; al-'Asqalani, Tahdhib, vol. 7 p. 231; Ibn Khallikan, Wafayat, vol. 3 p. 266
  7. Ibn Khallikan, Wafayat, vol. 3 p. 274; Al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-dhahab, vol. 3 p. 160; al-Tha'alabi, Thimar al-qulub, p. 226; Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh nahj al-balagha, vol. 10 p. 79
  8. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 5 p. 222; Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh nahj al-balagha, vol. 15 p. 273
  9. Al-Qadi al-Nu'man, Sharh al-akhbar, vol. 3 p. 266
  10. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 5 p. 222; Ibn Manzur, Mukhtasr, vol. 17 p. 256; Irbili, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2 p. 191
  11. Ibn Manzur, Mukhtasr, vol. 17 p. 231
  12. Al-Shabrawi, al-Ithaf, p. 143; Al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-dhahab, vol. 3 p. 160
  13. Mufid, al-Irshad, vol. 2 p. 138
  14. Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 380; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib, vol. 4 p. 189; Ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-khawas, p. 332-333
  15. Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 155
  16. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 1 p. 188-189
  17. Mufid, al-Irshad, vol. 2 p. 138
  18. Mufid, al-Ikhtisas, p. 211; Tabrisi, I'lam al-wara, vol. 2 p. 181-182; Al-'Amili, Ithbat al-huda, vol. 2 p. 285
  19. Mufid, al-Irshad, vol. 2 p. 139
  20. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 1 p. 486-488
  21. Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 254; Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 46 p. 12
  22. Mufid, al-Irshad, vol. 2 p. 113; Tabrisi, I'lam al-wara, vol. 1 p. 469
  23. Tusi, al-Amali, vol. 1 p. 90; Khwarizmi, Maqtal, vol. 2 p. 40
  24. Shadidi, Zindigani 'Ali b. al-Husayn, p. 56-57
  25. Tabari, Tarikh al-rusul wa l-muluk, vol. 7 p. 375
  26. Shadidi, Zindigani 'Ali b. al-Husayn, p. 75
  27. Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 45 p. 149; Al-Sayyid b. Tawus, al-Luhuf, p. 290; 'Abbas Qumi, Nafas al-mahmum, vol. 1 p. 794
  28. Shadidi, Zindigani 'Ali b. al-Husayn, p. 82-83
  29. Shadidi, Zindigani 'Ali b. al-Husayn, p. 86
  30. Shadidi, Zindigani 'Ali b. al-Husayn, p. 83
  31. Irbili, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2 p. 107
  32. Ja'fari, Tashayyu' dar masir tarikh, p. 286
  33. Kashshi, Rijal, p. 126; Tusi, Ikhtiyar, p. 126
  34. Dhahabī, al-'Ibar, vol. 1 p. 83
  35. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 4, p. 392; Ibn 'Abd Rabbih, al-'Iqd al-farid, vol. 3 p. 169
  36. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 4, p. 392.
  37. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 4, p. 393.
  38. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 4, p. 393.
  39. Isfahani, Hilyat al-awliya' , vol. 3 p. 136; Irbili, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2 p. 77; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib, vol. 4 p. 154; Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-safwa, vol. 2 p. 54; Saduq, al-Khisal, p. 616; 'Ilal al-sharayi' , p. 231
  40. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 5 p. 160
  41. Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-safwa, vol. 2 p. 54; Irbili, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2 p. 78
  42. Irbili, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2 p. 107; Al-Isfahani, Hilyat al-awliya' , vol. 3 p. 140
  43. Isfahani, Hilyat al-awliya' , vol. 3 p. 136; Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 5 p. 162
  44. Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-safwa, vol. 2 p. 54; Al-Isfahani, Hilyat al-awliya' , vol. 3 p. 136; Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 5 p. 164
  45. Isfahani, Hilyat al-awliya' , vol. 3 p. 136; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib, vol. 4 p. 154; Irbili, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2 p. 77
  46. Sayyid al-Ahl, Zayn al-'Abidin, p. 7, 47
  47. Mufid, al-Irshad, vol. 2 p. 153
  48. Dhahabī, Tadhkira, vol. 1 p. 75; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa l-nihaya, vol. 9 p. 124
  49. Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh nahj al-balagha, vol. 15 p. 274
  50. Ibn 'Inaba, 'Umdat al-talib, p. 194


  • Amīn, Sayyid Muḥsin al-. Aʿyān al-Shīʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf, 1403 AH.
  • Abu l-Bashar Dulābī, Muḥammad. Al-Kunā wa al-asmāʾ. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Abū Nuʿaym, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh. Ḥilyat al-awlīyāʾ wa ṭabaqāt al-aṣfīyaʾ. Cairo: 1351 AH-1933.
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāz. Bierut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, [n.d].
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ. Edited by Shuʿayb al-Arnaʾūt. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Risāla, 1404 AH.
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Al-ʿIbar fī khabar man ghabar. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, [n.d].
  • Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. Ḥasan. Ithbāt al-hudāt bi l-nuṣūṣ wa al-muʿjizāt. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī, [n.d].
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. 1st edition. Qom: Nashr-i ʿAllāma, 1379 Sh.
  • Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd b. Hibat Allāh. Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha. Edited by Muḥammad Abu l-faḍl Ibrāhīm. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Kutub al-ʿArabiyya, 1962.
  • Ibn Jawzī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī. Ṣafwat al-ṣafwa. Beirut: 1406 AH.
  • Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih, Aḥmad Muḥammad. Al-ʿIqd al-farīd. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, [n.d].
  • Ibn ʿAnba, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī. ʿUmdat al-ṭālib fi ansāb Āl Abī Ṭālib. Edited by Muḥammad Ḥasan Āl-i al-Ṭāliqānī. Najaf al-Ashraf: Manshurat Maṭbaʿat al-Ḥaydarīyya, 1380 AH.
  • Ibn Qūlawayh, Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad. Kāmil al-zīyārāt. Najaf: Dār al-Murtaḍawīyya, 1356 Sh.
  • Ibn al-Mashhadī, Muḥammad. Al-Mazār al-kabīr. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1378 AH.
  • Ibn Kathīr, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. Al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1408 AH.
  • Irbilī, ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā al-. Kashf al-ghumma fī maʿrifat al-aʾimma. Edited by Sayyid Hashim Rasūlī Maḥallātī. 1st edition. Tabriz: Maktabat Banī Hāshimī, 1381 AH.
  • Ibn Manẓūr, Muḥammad b. Mukarram. Mūkhtasar tārīkh Dimashq. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ibn Khalkān, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Wafayāt al-aʿyān wa ʾanbāʾ ʾabnāʾ al-zamān. Cairo: Maktaba al-Nihḍa, [n.d].
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Qom: ʿAllāma, [n.d].
  • Ibn Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā. Al-Luhūf ʿalā qatlay al-ṭufūf. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Leiden: 1322 AH.
  • Jaʿfarī, Ḥusayn Muḥammad. Tashayyuʿ dar masīr-i tārīkh. Translated by Muḥammad Taqī Āyatullāhī. Tehran: Daftar-i Nashr-i Farhang-i Islāmī, [n.d].
  • Kashshī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl known as Rijāl al-Kashshī. Edited by Ḥasan Muṣṭafawī. 1st edition. Mashhad: Intishārat-i Dānishgāh-i Mashhad, 1409 AH.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī & Muḥammad Ākhūndī. 4th edition. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmiyya, 1407 AH.
  • Kasrawī, Ḥasan. Mawsuʿat rijāl al-kutub al-tisʿa. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Second edition. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1403 AH.
  • Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Murūj al-dhahab wa maʿadin al-jawhar. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Ikhtiṣāṣ. 1st edition. Qom: al-Muʾtamar al-ʿĀlamī li-Alfīyat al-Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1413 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿalā l-ʿibād. Qom: Kungira-yi Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1413 AH.
  • Mubashshirī, Asad Allāh. Tarjuma al-Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya. Tehran: Nashr-i Ney, 1370 Sh.
  • Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Muntahā l-āmāl fī tawārīkh al-Nabī wa al-Āl. Qom: Dalīl-i Mā, 1379 Sh.
  • Qāḍī al-Nuʿmān. Sharḥ al-akhbār fī faḍāʾil al-aʾimmat al-aṭhār (a). [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Rāzī Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad. Al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Sibṭ b. al-Jawzī, Yūsuf b. Qazāwughlī. Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. ʿIlal al-sharāʾiʿ. Najaf: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, [n.d].
  • Shabrāwī, Jamāl al-Dīn. Al-Itḥāf bi ḥubb al-ashrāf. Edited by Sāmī Gharīrī. 1st edition. Qom: Dār al-Kitāb al-Islāmī, 1423 AH.
  • Shahīdī, Sayyid Jaʿfar. Zindigānī-i ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn (a). 13th edition. Tehran: Daftar-i Nashr-i Farhang-i Islāmī, 1385 Sh.
  • Shahīdī, Sayyid Jaʿfar. Zindigānī-i ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn (a). 10th edition. Tehran: Daftar-i Nashr-i Farhang-i Islāmī, 1380 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā. 1st edition. Tehran: Nashr-i Jahān, 1378 AH.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Khiṣāl. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Sayyid al-Ahl, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn. Cairo: Maktaba Wahaba, 1961.
  • Thaʿālibī, ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad al-. Thimār al-qulūb. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-.Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Iʿlām al-warā bi-aʿlām al-hudā. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt li-Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth, 1376 Sh.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Iʿlām al-warā bi-aʿlām al-hudā. 3rd edition. Tehran: Islāmiyya, 1390 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī. 3rd edition. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1373 Sh.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥamamd b. al-Ḥasan al-. Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid wa silāḥ al-mutaʿabbid, Beirut: Muʾassisat Fiqh al-Shīʿa, 1411 AH.

Further Reading

Name Titles Teknonym Day of Birth Year of
Day of Martyrdom Year of
Place of
Imamate Duration of
Mother's name
'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) Amir al-Mu'minin Abu l-Hasan 13 Rajab/10 October 23 BH/600 Ka'ba 21 Ramadan/28 January 40/661 Kufa 11/632-40/661 29 years Fatima bt. Asad
al-Hasan b. 'Ali (a) Al-Mujtaba Abu Muhammad 15 Ramadan/1 March 3/625 Medina 28 Safar/27 March 50/670 Medina 40/661-50/670 10 years Lady Fatima (a)
al-Husayn b. 'Ali (a) Sayyid al-Shuhada' Abu 'Abd Allah 3 Sha'ban/8 January 4/626 10 Muharram/10 October 61/680 Karbala 50/670-61/680 10 years
'Ali b. al-Husayn (a) al-Sajjad, Zayn al-'abidin Abu l-Hasan 5 Sha'ban/6 January 38/659 25 Muharram/20 October 95/713 Medina 61/680-95/713 35 years Shahrbanu
Muhammad b. 'Ali (a) Baqir al-'ulum Abu Ja'far 1 Rajab/10 May 57/677 7 Dhu l-Hijja/28 January 114/733 95/713-114/733 19 years Fatima
Ja'far b. Muhammad (a) al-Sadiq Abu 'Abd Allah 17 Rabi' I/20 April 83/702 25 Shawwal/14 December 148/765 114/733-148/765 34 years Fatima
Musa b. Ja'far (a) al-Kazim Abu l-Hasan 7 Safar/8 November 128/745 25 Rajab/1 September 183/799 Kadhimiyya 148/765-183/799 35 years Hamida al-Barbariyya
'Ali b. Musa (a) al-Rida Abu l-Hasan 11 Dhu l-Qa'da/29 December 148/765 End of Safar/5 September 203/818 Mashhad 183/799-203/818 20 years Najma
Muhammad b. 'Ali (a) al-Taqi, al-Jawad Abu Ja'far 10 Rajab/8 April 195/811 End of Dhu l-Qa'da/25 November 220/835 Kadhimiyya 203/818-220/835 17 years Sabika
'Ali b. Muhammad (a) al-Hadi, al-Naqi Abu l-Hasan 15 Dhu l-Hijja/6 March 212/828 3 Rajab/28 June 254/868 Samarra 220/835-254/868 34 years Samana al-Maghribiyya
al-Hasan b. 'Ali (a) al-Zakiyy, al-'Askari Abu Muhammad 8 Rabi' II/2 December 232/846 8 Rabi' I/1 January 260/874 254/868-260/874 6 years Hudayth
Hujja b. al-Hasan (a) al-Qa'im Abu l-Qasim 15 Sha'ban/29 July 255/869 Samarra
Since 260/874 up to(1445)