'Abd Allah b. Muslim b. 'Aqil

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Companion of Imam (a)
'Abd Allah b. Muslim b. 'Aqil
Darih of Imam al-Husayn & the grave of martyrs of Karbala.jpg
Burial Place of most of the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala, near the holy grave of Imam al-Husayn (a) in his shrine
Companion of Imam al-Husayn (a)
Wellknown Relatives Muslim b. 'Aqil (father), Imam al-Husayn (a) (uncle), Ruqayya bt. 'Ali (a) (mother)
Place of Birth Medina
Place(s) of Residence Medina
Death/Martyrdom 61/680
Cause of
Death/Martyrdom
Martyred in the Event of Ashura
Burial Place Karbala
Activities Participating in the battle of Karbala

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muslīm b. ʿAqīl b. Abī Ṭalib (a) (Arabic: عبدالله بن مُسلِم بن عَقيل بن أَبي طالب) is one of the martyrs of Karbala and, according to a report, the first martyr of Banu Hashim on the Day of 'Ashura'.

Lineage and Biography

'Abd Allah b. Muslim is the son of Muslim b. 'Aqil b. Abi Talib. Al-Tabari said that his mother was Ruqayya, Imam 'Ali's daughter.[1]

'Abd Allah b. Muslim was martyred on the Day of 'Ashura', 10th of Muharram, in Karbala. He was 26 or 28 when he was martyred.[2] It is reported in Tanqih al-maqal that 'Abd Allah was 14 when he was martyred. This report is improbable, though.[3]

Abu l-Faraj al-Isfahani (d. 356/967) writes: "Muslim b. 'Aqil had no children;[4] but many historians mentioned that he had sons and some of them mentioned a daughter for him, while there are many disagreements about their life, age and the way of martyrdom."

Dhabih Allah Mahallati in Rayahayn al-Shari'a wrote he was the husband of Sukayna daughter of Imam al-Husayn (a).[5]

In Karbala

Al-Khwarazmi narrated in Maqtal al-Husayn (a) that when all of the companions of Imam al-Husayn (a) were martyred and no one except for his family, i.e. descends of 'Ali, Ja'far, 'Aqil, Al-Hasan (a) and his own, had remained they gathered around and bid farewell to each other. Then the first person who went to battle field for fighting was 'Abd 'Allah b. Muslim.[6]

Al-Tabari in his history book narrated from Humayd b. Muslim al-Azdi, and also al-Shaykh al-Mufid in al-Irshad, that 'Amr b. Subayh al-Sada'i shot him by an arrow which sewed his hand to his forehead, then he was attacked and martyred.[7] 'Amr b. Subayh fired an arrow towards him. He wanted to protect his face by his hand; but the arrow sewed his hand to his forehead and he could not move his hand. Then another arrow hit him on his heart.[8]

Al-Tabari said that he was martyred by Usayd b. Malik al-Hadrami.[9] In another place he said that he was martyred by Zayd b. Ruqad, who was later killed by al-Mukhtar's order.[10]

Qadi Nu'man al-Maghribi (d. 363/973-4) writes that Muslim had a son named 'Abd Allah, whose mother was Ruqayya, Imam Ali's daughter. According to Qadi Nu'man, 'Abd Allah b. Muslim was martyred in Karbala by 'Amr b. Subayh. He adds that some has reported that he was martyred by Asad b. Malik.

Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, also, mentioned him among the companions of Imam al-Husayn (a) and said that his mother was Ruqayya, Imam Ali's daughter.

Al-Baladhuri talked about a young named 'Abd Allah b. Muslim b. 'Aqil b. Abi Talib whom Zayd b. Ruqad al-Janbi shot on forehead and heart and martyred. In another account, al-Baladhuri said that 'Amr b. Subayh al-Saydawi shot 'Abd Allah by an arrow, then he was attacked and martyred.

Battle Cry

Al-Shaykh al-Saduq narrated from Imam al-Sajjad (a) in al-Amali that 'Abd Allah b. Muslim went to battle field after Hilal b. Hajjaj, while he was reciting this battle cry:

I have sworn not to be killed except when I am free; although I have found the death bitter.
I do not like to be called coward and elusive.[11]

Al-Khwarazmi,[12] also, reported in Maqtal al-Husayn (a) that he recited this battle cry:

Today I will visit Muslim, who is my father, and the men who have passed away in the way of the religion of the Prophet.
They are not like people who are known by lie, rather the best people in lineage.

Ziyarah al-Nahiyya and al-Rajabiyya

'Abd Allah b. Muslim is mentioned in Ziyarah al-Shuhada' and Ziyarah al-Rajabiyya of Imam al-Husayn (a).

Notes

  1. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 103; Maghribī, Sharḥ al-akhbār, vol. 3, p. 195.
  2. Muḥammadī Rayshahrī, Dānishnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), p. 160-161.
  3. Tanqīḥ al-maqāl quoting by Muḥammadī Rayshahrī, Dānishnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), p. 160-161.
  4. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 52.
  5. Maḥallātī, Rayāḥīn al-sharī'a, vol. 4, p. 255.
  6. Khwārizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 26; Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 110; Ibn Shahrāshūb, al-Manāqib, vol. 4, p. 105.
  7. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 200.
  8. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 341; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 107.
  9. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 359; Maghribī, Sharḥ al-akhbār, vol. 3, p. 195.
  10. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 534; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 195.
  11. Ṣadūq, al-Amālī, p. 225; Fattāl al-Nayshābūrī, Rawḍat al-wāʿiẓīn, p. 207 quoting by Muḥammadī Rayshahrī in Dānishnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a).
  12. Khwārizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 26 quoting by Muḥammadī Rayshahrī in Dānishnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a).

References

  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Maḥmūdī. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1394 AH.
  • Maḥallātī, Ḍhabīḥ Allāh. Rayāḥīn al-sharī'a. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1373 Sh.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿala l-ʿibād. Edited by Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt li-taḥqīq al-Turāth. Beirut: Dār al-Mufīd, 1414 AH.
  • Muḥammadī Rayshahrī, Muḥammad. Dānishnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a) bar pāya-yi Qurʾān wa ḥadīth. Qom: Dār al-ḥadith, 1388 Sh.
  • Maghribī, Qāḍī Nuʿmān al-. Sharḥ al-akhbār fī faḍāʾil al-aʾmma al-aṭhār. Edited by Muḥammad Riḍā Ḥusaynī Jalālī. Qom: Muʾassisa al-Nashr al-Islāmī, [n.d].
  • Shahīdī, Sayyid Jaʿfar. Pas az panjāh sāl. A new research about the uprising of Imam Husein (a). Tehran: Daftar-i Nashr-i Farhang-i Islāmī, 1380 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Amālī. Qom: Markaz al-Ṭabaʿa wa al-Nashr fī Muʾassisat al-Biʿtha, 1417 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-.Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Edited by Muḥammad Abu l-faḍl Ibrāhīm. Beirut: Dar al-Turāth, 1967.