Umm al-Banin (a)
Wife of Imam Ali (a)
|Full Name||Fatima bt. Hizam|
|Well-known As||Umm al-Banin|
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shi'a|
|Well-known Relatives||Imam Ali (a), 'Abbas|
|Place of Birth||Medina|
|Place of Residence||Medina|
|Death/Martyrdom||Jumada II 13, 64/February 6, 684|
|Burial Place||Al-Baqi' Cemetery, Medina|
|Known for||Wife of Imam Ali (a), Mother of al-'Abbas b. Ali|
Fāṭima bt. Ḥizām (Arabic: فاطمة بنت حزام) (d. 64/684), well-known as Umm al-Banīn (Arabic: أمّ البَنین, lit. mother of the sons) is one of the wives of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and is one of the most honorable Shi'a personalities. She is the mother of 'Abbas and three other sons, 'Abd Allah, Ja'far and 'Uthman all of whom were martyred in the Battle of 'Ashura. Because she had four sons, she was called Umm al-Banin (mother of the sons). After the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a), Umm al-Banin mourned the Imam (a) and her children so sorrowfully that even the enemies of Ahl al-Bayt (a) accompanied her. According to Shi'a point of view, her mourning for Imam al-Husayn (a) before mourning for her children and her respect toward the children of the Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) indicate that she had a high level of religious true knowledge. Her tomb in al-Baqi' is a ziyara site for Shi'a.
Lineage and Demise
The exact date of her demise is unknown. However, her demise is marked on Jumada II 13, 64/February 6, 684. She is buried in al-Baqi' Cemetery near other eminent personalities such as: Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Sajjad (a), Imam al-Baqir (a), and Imam al-Sadiq (a).
Marriage with Imam 'Ali (a)
|Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)|
It has been narrated that after the demise of Fatima al-Zahra (a) in 11/632 , Imam 'Ali (a) consulted with his brother -'Aqil, who was an expert in Arab genealogy, about choosing a wife with a good lineage who will give birth to courageous and brave children. 'Aqil suggested Fatima bt. Hizam b. Khalid and added that among Arab, no one is more courageous than the men of Banu Kilab. Thus, Imam 'Ali (a) married her.
She gave birth to four sons –'Abbas (a), 'Abd Allah, Ja'far and 'Uthman. Her four sons were renowned for their courage and bravery. So, she was called Umm al-Banin (mother of the sons). All of her sons were martyred fighting along with Imam al-Husayn (a), in Karbala.
It is quoted that a while after the marriage, she suggested Imam 'Ali (a) to call her Umm al-Banin instead of Fatima, which was her original name, because the children of Fatima al-Zahra (a) would remember their mother and the sad memories by hearing "Fatima".
After the Battle of Karbala
Umm al-Banin was not present in Karbala. When the caravan of the Captives of Karbala arrived in Medina, someone informed her about the martyrdom of her sons; but she asked: "Tell me about al-Husayn (a)." When she heard that Imam al-Husayn (a) was martyred, she said: "I wish my children and everything in the world were ransom for al-Husayn (a) and he would have survived. "These words shows her great loyalty toward Ahl al-Bayt (a) and especially Imam al-Husayn (a).
Zaynab (a) and Umm al-Banin
Mourning for Children
After that she received the news of her sons' martyrdom, she went to al-Baqi' Cemetery every day with her grandson, 'Ubayd Allah (son of 'Abbas). She recited the lament that she had composed for her sons and cried sorrowfully. People of Medina gathered around her and cried along with her. It is even said that Marwan b. Hakam also cried with them. She recited this lament which she had composed for 'Abbas:
"O, he who saw 'Abbas attacking a multitude of enemy and the sons of 'Ali (a) were backing him up like brave lions. I was told that my son was hit on the head while his hands were cut. Woe unto me! my son had lowered his head [that] he was hit on the head. If his sword was in his hand, no one would have dared to approach him."
Words of Scholars
Zayn al-Din al-'Amili, known as al-Shahid al-Thani says, "Umm al-Banin is a virtuous lady. She had a great affection and loyalty toward the family of the Prophet (s) and devoted her life to serve them. In return, the household of the Prophet (s) considered a special status for her and honored her. They visited her on the days of Eid (Islamic holidays) as a sign of respect."
Sayyid Mahmud Shahrudi (d. Sha'ban 17, 1394/September 5, 1974) said, "When I face troubles, I recite Salawat hundred times for Abu l-Fadl al-'Abbas's mother -Umm al-Banin- and after that my problem is solved."
'Ali Muhammad 'Ali al-Dukhayl, a contemporary Arab writer, writes describing this great lady, "The greatness of this woman becomes obvious by this event: when she heard the news of martyrdom of her sons, she did not pay attention to it, but asked about Imam al-Husayn (a). It is as if, Imam al-Husayn (a) is her son not her own sons."
Baqir Sharif al-Qurashi, the author of the book 'Abbas b. Ali, ra'id al-karama writes about the virtues of Umm al-Banin, "No one has seen a woman like this pure lady (Umm al-Banin) in the history who would like her fellow wife's children honestly and care about them more [than her children]."
- Kalbāsī Najafī, Khaṣāʾiṣ al-ʿAbbāsīya, p. 63; Muzaffar, Mawsūʿa al-baṭal al-ʿalqamī, vol. 1, p. 100.
- Ibn ʿAnba, ʿUmdat al-ṭālib, p. 356.
- Rabbānī Khalkhālī, Chihra-yi dirakhshān-i qamar-i banī Hāshim, vol. 2, p. 76.
- Ibn ʿAnba, ʿUmdat al-ṭālib, p. 357.
- Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 82-84; Ibn ʿAnba, ʿUmdat al-ṭālib, p. 356; Ḥasūn, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt, p. 496.
- Rabbānī Khalkhālī, Chihra-yi dirakhshān-i qamar-i banī Hāshim, vol. 1, p. 69.
- Ḥasūn, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt, p. 496-497; Maḥallātī, Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa, vol. 3, p. 293; Dukhayyal, al-ʿAbbās b. Amīr al-Muʾminīn, p. 18.
- Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 85.
- Ḥasūn, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt, p. 496-497.
- Shubbar, Adāb al-luṭf aw shuʿarā, vol. 1, p. 71.
- Rabbānī Khalkhālī, Sitāra-yi dirakhshān-i madīna, p. 7; Muqarram, Qamar-i Banī Hāshim, p. 18.
- Rabbānī Khalkhālī, Chihra-yi dirakhshān-i qamar-i banī Hāshim, vol. 1, p. 464.
- Muqarram, Qamar-i Banī Hāshim, p. 18.
- Dukhayyal, al-ʿAbbās b. Amīr al-Muʾminīn, p. 18.
- Qarashī, al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAlī, p. 28.
- Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn. Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn. Edited by Sayyid Aḥmad al-Ṣaqar. Cairo: 1368 AH.
- Bulūkbāshī, ʿAlī. Umm al-Banīn dar farhang-i āmma; Dāʾirat al-maʿārif Buzurg-i Islāmī. volume 10. Tehran: Markaz-i Dāʾirat al-maʿārif Buzurg-i Islāmi, 1380 Sh.
- Dukhayyal, ʿAlī Muḥammad ʿAlī. Al-ʿAbbās b. Amīr al-Muʾminīn. Beirut: Muʾassisa Ahl al-Bayt, 1401 AH.
- Ḥasūn, Muḥammad. Mashkūr, Umm ʿAlī. Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt. Tehran: 1411 AH.
- Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409 AH.
- Ibn ʿAnba, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī. ʿUmdat al-ṭālib fi ansāb Āl Abī Ṭālib. Najaf: 1381 AH.
- Gharawī Urdūbādī, Muḥammad ʿAlī. Mawsūʿa al-ʿAllāma al-Urdūbādī. Edited by Sayyid Muḥammad Āl-i al-Mujaddid al-Shīrāzī. Karbalā: Dār al-Kafīl, 1436 AH.
- Kalbāsī Najafī, Muḥammad Ibrāhīm. Khaṣāʾiṣ al-ʿAbbāsīya. Translated to Farsi and Edited by Muḥammad Iskandarī. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Ṣīyām, 1387 Sh.
- Maḥallātī, Ḍhabīḥ Allāh. Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa. Tehran: 1364 Sh.
- Maḥmūdī, ʿAbbās ʿAlī. Māh-i bī ghurūb; zindigī-yi Abu l-Fadl al-ʿAbbās. Tehran: Fayḍ Kāshānī, 1379 Sh.
- Muqarram, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-. Maqtal al-Ḥusayn aw ḥadith Karbalā. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Khirsān li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1426 AH.
- Muqarram, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-. Qamar-i Banī Hāshim. Najaf: 1369 AH.
- Qarashī, Bāqir Sharīf al-. Al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAlī. Translated to Farsi by Sayyid Ḥasan Islāmī. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1386 sh.
- Rabbānī Khalkhālī, ʿAlī. Chihra-yi dirakhshān-i qamar-i banī Hāshim Abu l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās. Qom: Maktab al-Ḥusayn, 1376 Sh.
- Rabbānī Khalkhālī, ʿAlī. Sitāra-yi dirakhshān-i madīna; Haḍrat-i Umm al-Banīn, hamsar-i bāwafā-yi Amīr al-Muʾminīn. Qom: Maktab al-Ḥusayn, 1378 Sh.
- Shubbar, Jawād. Adāb al-luṭf aw shuʿarā' al-Ḥusayn min al-qarn al-awwal al-hijrī ḥattā al-qarn al-rābiʿ al-ʿashar. Beirut: Dār al-Murtaḍā, 1409 AH.
- Zuhayrī, Dāwūd b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī al-Kirām al-Jaʿfarī. Al-Sayyida Umm al-Banīn; Sīratuhā, Kirāmatuhā. 1st edition. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Aʿlāmī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 2006.
- Zujājī Kashānī, Majīd. Saqqāyi Karbalā. Tehran: Nashr-i Subḥān, 1379 Sh.