Umar b. al-Imam Ali (a)
|Well-Known As||'Umar al-Atraf|
|Father||Imam 'Ali (a)|
|Mother||Layla bt. Mas'ud|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina|
|Place of Burial||Karbala|
ʿUmar b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (Arabic:عُمَر بن عَليّ بن اَبي طالِب d. 61/680), known as 'Umar al-Atraf was one of the children of Imam Ali (a) and according to some historians, was among the martyrs of Karbala, while some others believe he was not present in the Battle of Karbala. It is said that except him (who was called 'Umar al-Asghar), Imam Ali (a) had another son called 'Umar al-Akbar, whose mother was Umm Habiba and was not present in the event of Karbala.
Some have mentioned 'Umar b. Ali as 'Umar al-Akbar whose teknonym was Abu l-Qasim or Abu Hafs. There are different reports about the name of his mother. Ibn Sa'd and al-Ya'qubi reported the name of his mother as Sahba (Umm Habib), daughter of Rabi'a al-Taghlibi, and reported that she was taken captive by Khalid b. Walid in 'Ayn al-Tamr and brought to Medina, but there is no information about the year Imam Ali (a) married her. Some other sources have mentioned her name as Layla bt. Mas'ud al-Darami. Al-Fakhr al-Razi mentioned that 'Umar was the youngest child of Imam Ali (a).
According to Sepehr, Imam Ali (a) had two sons called 'Umar: 'Umar al-Akbar whose mother was Umm Habiba and was not present in the Event of Karbala; and 'Umar al-Asghar who was martyred after his brother Abu Bakr in the Event of Karbala.
Cause of Naming
Al-Baladhuri and al-Dhahabi wrote that 'Umar b. al-Khattab made his name the same as his own and gave him a slave.  He also changed the name of some others. Another point is that names such as 'Umar was a common name at that time and more than 20 of the Companions of the Prophet (s) were named 'Umar.
Presence in the Battle of Karbala
There are disagreements among historians and biographers about the presence of 'Umar b. Ali in Karbala: al-Khwarazmi, Ibn Shahr Ashub, al-Mamaqani and some others counted him among the martyrs. It is reported that he made war cries on the Day of 'Ashura and attacked the enemy. He attacked Zahr, the killer of his brother, and killed him.
Al-Khwarazmi reported his martyrdom after the martyrdom of his brother Abu Bakr. It is said that first, his horse fell down and then they martyred him.
Also, there are reports about the absence of 'Umar b. Ali in Karbala by Abu l-Faraj, Ibn Sa'd, and some others who did not mention his martyrdom. Also, shreds of evidence about his presence in Karbala have been reported. According to one report, he was not present in Karbala and lived until the caliphate of 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan. Accordingly, he had complaints about donations of the Prophet (s) and Imam Ali (a) and passed away after all the children of Imam Ali (a).
- ↑ Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 14.
- ↑ ʿAmrī, al-Majdī fī ansāb al-ṭālibīn, p. 7; Ibn ʿAnba, ʿUmdat al-ṭālib, p. 362.
- ↑ Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 114; Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 139; Ibn Ḥazm, Jumhurat ansāb al-ʿarab, vol. 1, p. 31.
- ↑ Rāzī, al-Shajarat al-mubāraka, p. 189.
- ↑ Sepihr Kāshānī, Nāsikh al-tawārīkh, vol. 2, p. 333-355.
- ↑ Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 413; Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 4, p. 134.
- ↑ Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 5, p. 29; vol. 1, p. 186.
- ↑ Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 4, p. 587-597.
- ↑ Khwārizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 28.
- ↑ Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib, vol 4, p. 107.
- ↑ Khwārizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 28-29.
- ↑ Khwārizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 28-29.
- ↑ Ṭabarī, Tārīkh-i Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 154.
- ↑ Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 149; Qāḍī al-Nu'mān, Sharḥ al-akhbār, vol. 3, p. 184-191.
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