This article is featured on October 26, 2015. For other featured articles click here.
Good article since 1 September 2020
Priority: a, Quality: b

Martyrs of Karbala

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search
For complete list of all of the companions of Imam al-Husayn (a), see list of companions of Imam al-Husayn (a).
Burial Place of most of the martyrs of Karbala, near the holy grave of Imam al-Husayn (a) in Karbala
Timeline of the Battle of Karbala
60/680
Rajab 15 Death of Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan
Rajab 28 Departure of Imam al-Husayn b. 'Ali (a) from Medina.
Sha'ban 3 Arrival of Imam al-Husayn (a) to Mecca.
Ramadan 10 Arrival of Kufiyans' first letter to Imam (a)
Ramadan 12 Arrival of 150 letters from Kufa
Ramadan 14 Arrival of the letter from leaders of Kufa
Ramadan 15 Departure of Muslim b. 'Aqil from Mecca toward Kufa.
Shawwal 5 Arrival of Muslim b. 'Aqil to Kufa.
Dhu l-Hijja 8 Departure of Imam al-Husayn (a) form Mecca
Dhu l-Hijja 8 Uprising of Muslim b. 'Aqil in Kufa
Dhu l-Hijja 9 Martyrdom of Muslim b. 'Aqil
61/680
Muharram 1 Asking for help of 'Ubayd Allah b. al-Hurr al-Ju'fi and 'Amr b. Qays in Banu Maqatil
Muharram 2 Arrival of Imam (a) to Karbala
Muharram 3 Arrival of 'Umar b. Sa'd with 4,000 people to Karbala
Muharram 6 Habib b. Muzahir's asking for help of Banu Asad
Muharram 7 Banding of water by 'Umar b. Sa'd
Muharram 7 Muslim b. 'Awsaja al-Asadi joined Imam (a)
Muharram 9 Arrival of Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan to Karbala
Muharram 9 Shimr's Safe conduct for Umm al-Banin's children
Muharram 9 Announcing of the Battle by 'Umar b. Sa'd and Imam's (a) asking for a delay
Muharram 10 Events of Ashura
Muharram 11 Moving the captives towards Kufa
Muharram 11 Burial of martyrs by Banu Asad
Muharram 12 Burial of a few member of martyrs
Muharram 13 Arrival of captives to Kufa
Muharram 19 Moving the captives from Kufa towards Syria
Safar 1 Arrival of the captives to Syria
Safar 20 Arba'in
Safar 20 Return of Ahl al-Bayt (a) to Karbala
Safar 20 Moving from Karbala toward Medina (in some accounts)

Martyrs of Karbala (Arabic: شهداء كربلاء) are those who were martyred on Muharram 10th ('Ashura'), 61/680, in Karbala by Umar b. Sa'd's army. Martyrs of Karbala include Imam al-Husayn (a), some members of Banu Hashim (Hashemites) and some of his companions. The exact number of martyrs of Karbala is unknown; however according to what is reported by majority of historians they were 72. Some martyrs are mentioned in all of the books, in which the event of Karbala is narrated, but some are only mentioned in some sources. 18 martyrs are from Banu Hashim (Hashimites) and the rest are Imam al-Husayn's companions. al-Abbas b. Ali and Ali al-Akbar, Imam al-Husayn's son, are the best known martyrs of Banu Hashim and al-Hurr b. Yazid al-Riyahi, Habib b. Muzahir and Muslim b. Awsaja al-Asadi are the famous martyrs among Imam's companions. Except for Hurr b. Yazid, all the martyrs were buried in Karbala.

Number of Martyrs

There are different reports about the number of the martyrs of Karbala in sources.[1] However, in most of them they were counted 72,[2] 18 of which were from Banu Hashim (Hashemites) and the rest were from other tribes.[3] They were divided into 34 cavalry and 40 infantry.[4] In al-Irsahd, al-Shaykh al-Mufid reported that the heads of martyrs of Karbala were 72.[5] Reporting the same number of heads, al-Baladhuri added that Abu Mikhnaf narrated the number of heads which was brought by each tribe to Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad: 13 heads were brought by the tribe of Kinda led by Qays b. al-Ash'ath, 20 heads by Hawazin led by Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan, 17 heads by Banu Tamim, 16 heads by Banu Asad, 7 heads by Madhhij and 9 heads by Qays (totally 82 heads).[6]

Some other sources have reported different numbers:

Martyrs of Banu Hashim

According to the most famous narration, 18 individuals from Banu Hashim were martyred including Imam al-Husayn (a) in Karbala.[11]

Children of Imam Ali (a)

Children of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a)

Children of Imam al-Husayn (a)

Others

Rare Reports

The name of 42 members of Banu Hashim was mentioned just in some of references:

  • Ibrahim b. Ali
  • Al-Abbas al-Asghar b. Ali
  • Ja'far b. Ali
  • Abd Allah al-Akbar b. Ali
  • Abd Allah al-Asghar b. Ali
  • Ubayd Allah b. Ali
  • Umar b. Ali
  • Atiq b. Ali
  • Al-Qasim b. Ali
  • Bishr b. al-Hasan
  • Umar b. al-Hasan
  • Abu Bakr b. al-Husayn
  • Abu Bakr b. al-Qasim b. al-Husayn
  • Ibrahim b. al-Husayn
  • Ja'far b. al-Husayn
  • Hamza b. al-Husayn
  • Zayd b. al-Husayn
  • Al-Qasim b. al-Husayn
  • Muhammad b. al-Husayn
  • Umar b. al-Husayn
  • Muhammad b. Aqil
  • Muhammad b. Abd Allah b. Aqil
  • Hamza b. Aqil
  • Ali b. Aqil
  • Awn b. Aqil
  • Ja'far b. Muhammad b. Aqil
  • Abu Sa'id b. Aqil
  • Ibrahim b. Muslim b. Aqil
  • Muhammad b. Muslim b. Aqil
  • Abd al-Rahman b. Muslim b. Aqil
  • Ubayd Allah b. Muslim b. Aqil
  • Abu Abd Allah b. Muslim b. Aqil
  • Ali b. Muslim b. Aqil
  • Ibrahim b. Ja'far
  • Muhammad b. Ja'far
  • Awn b. Ja'far b. Ja'far
  • Abu Bakr b. Abd Allah b. Ja'far
  • Awn al-Asghar b. Abd Allah b. Ja'far
  • Al-Husayn b. Abd Allah b. Ja'far
  • Ubayd Allah b. Abd Allah b. Ja'far
  • Muhammad b. al-Abbas
  • Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Hashimi[19]

Martyrs of Companions

Imam al-Husayn (a):

I do not know any companion better and more loyal than my companions ...

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Irshad, vol.2 p.91

Sahaba

Companions of Imam Ali

Others

Manner and Place of Burial

Muharram 11th[23] or 13th[24] is mentioned as the time when the martyrs of Karbala were buried. According to some reports, after Ibn Sa'd and his soldiers returned, a group of people from Banu Asad who lived near Karbala, went to the battlefield and at a time of night, when they were safe from the enemies, prayed upon the bodies of Imam al-Husayn (a) and his companions and then buried them.[25]

Most of the martyrs are buried in the collective grave of the martyrs of Karbala, below the grave of Imam al-Husayn (a). Ali al-Akbar (a) is buried below the feet of Imam (a) and Ali al-Asghar (a), according to the more famous report, is buried beside Imam (a). The shrine of al-Abbas b. Ali (a) is near Alqama Creek and the shrine of al-Hurr b. Yazid al-Riyahi is in the outskirt of the city of Karbala.[citation needed]

See Also

Notes

  1. Group of authors, Tarīkh-i qīyām wa maqtal-i jāmiʿ-i Sayyid al-Shuhadaʾ (a), 1391 Sh, vol. 2, p. 483-485.
  2. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, 1977, p. 395. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, 1967, vol. 5, p. 422. Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, 1373 Sh, p. 256. Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, 1411 AH, vol. 5, p. 101.
  3. Group of authors, Tarīkh-i qīyām wa maqtal-i jāmiʿ-i Sayyid al-Shuhadaʾ (a), 1391 Sh, vol. 2, p. 485.
  4. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, 1977, p. 395. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, 1967, vol. 5, p. 422. Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, 1373 Sh, p. 256. Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, 1411 AH, vol. 5, p. 101.
  5. Mufīd, al-Irshād, 1413 AH, vol. 2, p. 113.
  6. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, 1977, p. 207.
  7. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, 1409 AH, vol. 3, p. 61.
  8. Sayyid b. Ṭāwūs, al-Luhūf, Anwār al-Hudā, p. 85.
  9. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, 1403 AH, vol. 45, p. 4.
  10. Qumī, Nafas al-mahmūm, al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, p. 236.
  11. Group of authors, Tarīkh-i qīyām wa maqtal-i jāmiʿ-i Sayyid al-Shuhadaʾ (a), 1391 Sh, vol. 2, p. 485-487.
  12. Qumī, Nafas al-mahmūm, al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, p. 295-298.
  13. Qumī, Nafas al-mahmūm, al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, p. 292-295. Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Shahādatnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), vol. 2, p. 294.
  14. Khwārazmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, 1423 AH, vol. 2, p. 48.
  15. Qumī, Nafas al-mahmūm, al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, p. 276. Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Shahādatnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), vol. 2, p. 294.
  16. Qumī, Nafas al-mahmūm, al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, p. 317-318. Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Shahādatnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), vol. 2
  17. Muḥaddithī, Farhang-i ʿĀshūrā, 1393 Sh, p. 348. Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Shahādatnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), vol. 2, p. 294.
  18. Qumī, Nafas al-mahmūm, al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, p. 286-290. Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Shahādatnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), vol. 2, p. 294.
  19. Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Shahādatnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), vol. 2, p. 294-298.
  20. Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Shahādatnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), p. 293.
  21. Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Shahādatnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), p. 293.
  22. Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Shahādatnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), 1395 Sh, vol. 1, p. 298-301.
  23. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, 1967, vol. 5, p. 455. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, 1409 AH, vol. 3, p. 63.
  24. Muqarram, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, p. 319.
  25. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, 1977, vol. 3, p. 411. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, 1967, vol. 5, p. 455. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, 1409 AH, vol. 3, p. 259.

References

  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Ed. Muḥammad Bāqir Maḥmūdī, Beirut, Dār al-Taʿāruf, 1977.
  • Dīnawarī, Aḥmad b. Dāwūd al-. Al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl. Qom, al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1373 Sh.
  • Group of authors. Tarīkh-i qīyām wa maqtal-i jāmiʿ-i Sayyid al-Shuhadaʾ (a). Qom, Muʾassisa-yi Amūzishī wa Pajhūhishī-yi Imām Khomeinī, 1391 Sh.
  • Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Aḥmad. Kitāb al-Futūḥ. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwaʾ, 1411/1991.
  • Khwārizmī, al-Muwaffaq b. Aḥmad al-. Maqtal al-Ḥusayn. Qom, Anwār al-Hudā, 1423 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Taqī al-. Biḥār al-anwār, Beirut, Muʾassisat al-Wafā, 1403 AH.
  • Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Murūj al-dhahab wa maʿādin al-jawhar. Ed. Asʿad Dāghir. Qom, Dār al-Hijra, 1409 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat hujaj Allāh ʿalā l-ʿibād. Qom, Kungira-yi Jahānī-yi Shaykh-i Mufīd, 1413 AH.
  • Muḥaddithī, Jawād al-. Farhang-i ʿĀshūrā. Qom, Nashr-i Maʿrūf, 1393 Sh.
  • Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Muḥammad. Shahādatnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a). Translated by Maḥdī Mihrīzī et al. Qom, Dār al-Ḥadīth, 1395 Sh.
  • Muqarram, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-. Maqtal al-Ḥusayn. Beirut, Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, nd.
  • Qumī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Nafas al-mahmūm fī muṣībat sayyidinā l-Ḥusayn al-maẓlūm. Qom, al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, nd.
  • Sayyid b. Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā al-. Al-Luhūf fī qatlā l-ṭufūf. Qom, Anwār al-Hudā, nd.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Ed. Muḥammad Abū l-Faḍl Ibrāhīm. Beirut, Dār al-Turāth, 1967.