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Sa'id b. 'Abd Allah al-Hanafi

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Companion of Imam (a)
Sa'id b. 'Abd Allah al-Hanafi
Darih of Imam al-Husayn & the grave of martyrs of Karbala.jpg
Burial place of martyrs of Karbala
Full Name Sa'id b. 'Abd Allah al-Hanafi
Companion of Imam al-Husayn (a)
Lineage Banu Hanifa b. Lajim tribe
Place(s) of Residence Kufa
Death/Martyrdom 61/680
Cause of
Death/Martyrdom
Martyred in the Battle of Karbala
Burial Place Holy Shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a),Karbala, Iraq
Activities Participating in the Battle of Ashura

Saʿīd b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥanafī (Arabic: سعيد بن عبد الله الحنفي) was a companion of Imam al-Husayn (a) and a martyr on the Day of Ashura. He was a senior Shiite and a nobleman in Kufa. He had a significant role in calling Imam al-Husayn (a) to Iraq. Sa'id delivered important letters from Kufa to Imam al-Husayn (a) twice. In the second time, he delivered Muslim b. 'Aqil's letter to the Imam (a) and then accompanied Imam's (a) caravan from Mecca to Karbala. His remarks at the night before Ashura shows his love for Ahl al-Bayt (a) and support of Imam al-Husayn (a).

Lineage

He was from the Banu Hanifa b. Lajim tribe, a clan of Banu Bakr b. Wa'il from the 'Adnan tribe.[1] He was a famous nobleman of Kufa and he was well-known for his courage and piety. On some accounts, his name was Sa'd.[2]

Accompanying Imam al-Husayn (a)

Delivering the Last Letter of Kufis

When people of Kufa learned that Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan died, Shiites gathered and wrote letters to Imam al-Husayn (a) and sent them to the Imam (a) by different messengers. The third letter was sent by Sa'id b. 'Abd Allah al-Hanafi and Hani b. Hani al-Sabi'i.[3]

The third letter was written by Shabath b. Rib'i, Hajjar b. Abjar, Yazid b. Harith, Yazid b. Ruwaym, 'Uzra b. Qays, 'Amr b. Hajjaj and Muhammad b. 'Umayr.[4] On some accounts, Sa'id b. 'Abd Allah was commissioned to deliver the letter to the Imam (a) because he was so well-reputed that he could convince the Imam (a) to go to Kufa.[5]

Here is the beginning of the letter:

In the name of God the compassionate, the merciful. To Husayn b. Ali (a) from Shiite Muslims. Please come sooner because people are waiting for you and their hearts are with you. Please haste. Peace be upon you. Every place is green, fruits are ripe, and water wells are full. Please come; your army is ready and peace be upon you.

Imam al-Husayn (a) wrote a reply to this letter and Sa'id delivered it to people of Kufa. The Imam (a) appointed Muslim b. 'Aqil as his representative in Kufa. When Muslim entered Kufa, he resided in al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi's house and delivered a speech for people. In the assembly, 'Abis b. Abi Shabib al-Shakiri and then Habib b. Muzahir gave speeches as well, and then Sa'id b. 'Abd Allah al-Hanafi gave a speech and swore that he was resolved to helping Imam al-Husayn (a). In this assembly, Muslim b. 'Aqil gave Sa'id the commission to call Imam al-Husayn (a) to Kufa. Sa'id returned to Mecca and delivered Muslim b. 'Aqil's letter to the Imam (a). He accompanied Imam al-Husayn (a) from Mecca to Karbala.[6]

In Karbala

Sa'id b. 'Abd Allah gave an epical speech on the night before Ashura when Imam al-Husayn (a) called all his companions to gather behind the camps and gave a speech and asked them to take the hands of their friends and escape the land in the darkness of the night. The Imam (a) said: "these people are after me, so there is nothing for you to be concerned about, and I will forgive you all".

Sa'id was one of the companions who stood up and replied to the Imam (a) as follows:

O, the son of the Prophet (s)! I swear to God that we never stop helping you so that God knows that we have obeyed the Prophet's (s) will about his progeny. I swear to God that if I am killed and then be alive again, and then my corpse is burned 70 times and my ashes are gone by the wind, I will never give up on you. May I be sacrificed for you.[7]

Martyrdom

On some accounts, after the noon prayer on the Day of Ashura, Sa'id went to Imam al-Husayn (a) and asked for his permission to go to the battlefield. He went to the battlefield while chanting paeans. He killed and injured many people in the enemy's army and was then martyred. On another account, Sa'id was martyred after the noon prayer.[8] When Imam al-Husayn (a) was saying the prayers at noon, the enemy's army approached the Imam (a). Sa'id was guarding him by shielding himself against arrows thrown to the Imam (a) and other prayer performers. He was hit by arrows in his face, chest, sides and, hands.[9] When he fell down and was dying, he prayed as follows:

O, God! As you have cursed people of 'Ad and Thamud, curse these people [that is, the army of Kufa]. O, God! Send my regards to your prophet (s) and inform him of pains and injuries I have suffered in my body, since I have helped your prophet (s) to achieve your rewards.[10]

It is said that Sa'id turned to Imam al-Husayn (a) then, and said to him: "O the son of the Prophet (s)! Have I fulfilled my pledge?" The Imam (a) said: "Yes, you are in the heaven in front of me".[11] It is said that when he was martyred, there were 13 arrows on his body, in addition to injuries by swords and spears.[12]

Notes

  1. Shams al-Dīn, Anṣār al-Ḥusayn (a), p. 76.
  2. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 70.
  3. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 262; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib, vol. 4, p. 97; Samāwī, Ibṣār al-ʿayn, p. 216.
  4. Kamaraʾī, ʿUnṣur-i shujāʿat, vol. 1, p. 158-160.
  5. Kamaraʾī, ʿUnṣur-i shujāʿat, vol. 1, p. 158.
  6. Samāwī, Ibṣār al-ʿayn, p. 216.
  7. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 318; Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 5, p. 107; Samāwī, Ibṣār al-ʿayn, p. 216; Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 28; Kamaraʾī, ʿUnṣur-i shujāʿat, vol. 1, p. 164; Muqarram, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, p. 89; Abī Mikhnaf, Waqʿat al-Ṭaff, p. 229; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib, vol. 4, p. 107; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 7, p. 241.
  8. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 326.
  9. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 5, p. 107-108; Samāwī, Ibṣār al-ʿayn, p. 217; Abī Mikhnaf, Waqʿat al-Ṭaff, p. 266; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 7, p. 241.
  10. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 5, p. 107-108; Samāwī, Ibṣār al-ʿayn, p. 217-218; Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 28.
  11. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 5, p. 108; Samāwī, Ibṣār al-ʿayn, p. 218; Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 28.
  12. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 7, p. 241.

References

  • Amīn, al-Sayyid Muḥsin al-. Aʿyān al-Shīʿa. Edited by Ḥasan Amīn. Beirut: Dār al-Tʿāruf li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1421 AH.
  • Abī Mikhnaf, Lūṭ b. Yaḥyā. Waqʿat al-Ṭaff. Edited by Muḥammad Hādī Yūsufī Samāwī. Qom: Majmaʿ Ālamī li Ahl al-Bayt (a), 1427 AH.
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Edited by Yūsuf al-Biqāʿī. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwaʾ, 1421 AH.
  • Kamaraʾī, Khalīl. ʿUnṣur-i shujāʿat ya ḥaftād-o-du tan-o-yik tan, Aṣḥāb-i Sayyid al-shuhadāʾ. Qom: Dār al-ʿIrfān, 1389 Sh.
  • Mamaqānī, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥasan. Tanqīḥ al-maqāl fī ʿilm al-rijāl. Najaf: Maṭbaʿat al-Murtaḍawīyya, [n.d].
  • Muqarram, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-. Maqtal al-Ḥusayn. Qom: Manshūrāt al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, [n.d].
  • Sayyid b. Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā. Sāhil-i khūnīn; tarjuma-yi luhūf Sayyid b. Ṭāwūs. Translated by Muḥammad Jawād Mulawīnīyā. Qom: Surūr, 1377 Sh.
  • Shūshtarī, Muḥammad Taqī. Qāmūs al-rijāl. Qom: Muʾassisa-yi Nashr-i Islāmī, 1414 AH.
  • Samāwī, Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir al-. Ibṣār al-ʿayn fī anṣār al-Ḥusayn (a). Edited by Muḥammad Jaʿfar Ṭabasī. [n.p]. Markaz al-Dirāsāt al-Islāmīyya li Ḥars al-Thawra, 1377 Sh.
  • Shams al-Dīn, Muḥammad Mahdī. Anṣār al-Ḥusayn (a). Tehran: Muʾassisa-yi al-Biʿtha, 1407 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1879.