Priority: c, Quality: b

Rifa'a b. Shaddad al-Bajali

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Companion of Imam (a)
Rifa'a b. Shaddad al-Bajali
Full Name Rifa'a b. Shaddad al-Bajali al-Fityani
Companion of Imam 'Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a)
Religious Affiliation Shi'a
Lineage Bajila
Place(s) of Residence Kufa, Ahwaz
Martyrdom 66/686
Activities The judge of Ahwaz, commander of infantry in the Battle of Jamal, one of the leaders of the Tawwabun, a member of al-Mukhtar uprising

Rifā'a b. Shaddād al-Bajalī al-Fityānī (Arabic: رِفاعَة بن شَدّاد البَجَلي الفِتیاني) (d. 66/686) was a companion of Imam 'Ali (a), he participated in the Battle of Jamal and Siffin, and was the judge of Ahwaz during Imam 'Ali's reign.

Rifa'a was one of first people who send a letter to Imam al-Husayn (a) and asked him to come to Kufa. After the event of 'Ashura', he became one of the leaders of Tawwabun uprising. Afterward, he joined Uprising of al-Mukhtar. Historical sources reported that he left al-Mukhtar after a short while. However, he was killed in al-Mukhtar's uprising.

Lineage

He was from the tribe of Bajila. Most people of this tribe supported Imam 'Ali (a) during his caliphate, and in the Battle of Siffin, almost all of them were in Imam's army.[1] In the time of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a), most of them studied and learnt hadith under these two Imams and became companion to them and the succeeding Imams. Al-Najashi mentions more than fifty narrator in his book who are affiliated to this tribe.[2]

During Imam Ali's Life

Accompanying Malik al-Ashtar, Rifa'a participated the funeral of Abu Dhar in Rabadha.[3] During Imam 'Ali's caliphate, he was appointed as the judge of Ahwaz by the Imam (a). Imam 'Ali's letter to him has been reported in sources including the book Da'a'im al-Islam.[4] Recently, this latter has been published separately.[5]

Rifa'a was the commander of infantry in the Battle of Jamal.[6] In Siffin, Imam 'Ali (a) appointed him as the standard bearer of Bajila tribe.[7]

After Imam 'Ali (a)

Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned his name among Imam al-Hasan's (a) companions.[8] During Mu'awiya reign, when Ziyad b. Abih summoned the companions of Hujr b. 'Adi, he and 'Amr b. Hamiq fled to al-Madain. But on their way to Mosul, 'Amr got sick and asked Rifa'a to leave him and save his life; so Rifa'a went to Mosul.[9]

In the Event of Karbala

After Mu'awiya's death, he was one of the first Shi'a who sent a letter to Imam al-Husayn (a) and invited him to Kufa.[10]

Rifa'a b. Shaddad as shown in Mukhtarnama TV series.

He was one of the five commanders in Tawwabun[11] who revolute for avenging Imam al-Husayn (a) and fought Yazid's Army in 'Ayn al-Warda. When he saw that Sulayman b. Surad al-Khuza'i -the head of Tawwabun- and many others have been martyred so that they can not resist any more, he ordered withdrawal and returned to Iraq.

Back in Iraq, he joined al-Mukhtar's uprising[12] as he said that he wanted to avenge the martyrs of Karbala and 'Ayn al-Warda. But when he sensed that al-Mukhtar has hidden some of his intentions, he left al-Mukhtar and joined his opponents.[13] However, when he heard al-Mukhtar's opponents chanting "Ya la Tharat al-'Uthman" (O, avengers of 'Uthamn) he got angry and fought them until he was killed (66/686).[14]

Narration

He has narrated hadiths from 'Amr b. Hamiq al-Khuza'i[15] and 'Abd al-Malik b. 'Umayr has narrated hadiths from him.[16]

Notes

  1. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 205, 60, 228-229.
  2. Najāshī, Rijāl, 71, 412, 215, 119, 413, 446, 238, 302.
  3. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 65.
  4. Tamīmī Maghribī, Daʿāim al-Islām, vol. 1, p. 227; vol. 2, p. 36, 38, 176, 258, 404, 442, 445, 459, 487, 499, 530, 534; Nūrī, Mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol. 2, p. 450; vol. 13, p. 393; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 79, p. 101.
  5. Letter of Imam Ali (a) to Rifa'a b. Shaddad
  6. Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 468.
  7. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 205.
  8. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 94.
  9. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 715; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 272.
  10. Ibn Qutayba, al-Imāma wa l-sīyāsa, vol. 2, p. 7; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 157; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 352.
  11. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 6, p. 364.
  12. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 264.
  13. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 291.
  14. Ziriklī, al-Aʿlām, vol. 3, p. 29; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 6, p. 50, 616; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 235; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 267.
  15. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 4, p. 87.
  16. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 5, p. 227.

References

  • Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-ṣaḥāba. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409 AH.
  • Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1399-1402 AH.
  • Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Aḥmad b. Aʿtham. Kitāb al-Futūḥ. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. 1st edition. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwaʾ, 1411 AH-1991
  • Ibn Khaldūn, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad. Dīwan al-mubtadaʾ wa l-khabar. Edited by Khalīl al-Shaḥāda. Second edition. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1408 AH.
  • Ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī, ʿAbd Allah b. Muslim . Al-Imāma wa l-sīyāsa al-mʿrūf bi-tārīkh al-khulafāʾ. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār al-Awḍāʾ. 1410 AH-1990.
  • Ibn Kathīr al-Dimashqī, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. Al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1407 AH-1986.
  • Ziriklī, Khayr al-Dīn al-. Al-Aʿlām qāmus tarājum li ashhur al-rijāl wa al-nisāʾ min al-ʿarab wa al-mustaʿribīn wa al-mustashriqīn. Eighth edition. Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm li-l-Malāyyīn, 1989.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Rijāl. Qom: Jāmiʿat al-Mudarrisīn, 1415 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Beirut: 1407 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Wafaʾ, 1404 AH.
  • Kashshī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl known as Rijāl al-Kashshī. Edited by Ḥasan Muṣṭafawī. Mashhad: Intishārat-i Dānishgāh-i Mashhad, 1348 Sh.
  • Nūrī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad Taqī. Mustadrak al-wasāʾil. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1408 AH.
  • Najāshī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Fihrist asmāʾ muṣannifī al-Shīʿa al-mushtahir bi rijāl al-Najāshī. Edited by Mūsā Shubayrī Zanjānī. Qom: Dafter-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1407 AH.
  • Naṣr b. Muzāhim Minqarī. Waqʿat Ṣiffīn. Edited by ʿAbd al-Salām Muḥammad Hārūn. Cairo: 1382. Qom: lithography, 1404 AH.
  • Tamīmī Maghribī, Nuʿmān b. Muḥammad. Daʿāim al-Islām. Egypt: Dār al-Maʿārif, 1385 AH.