Rifa'a b. Shaddad al-Bajali
|Rifa'a b. Shaddad al-Bajali|
|Full Name||Rifa'a b. Shaddad al-Bajali al-Fityani|
|Companion of||Imam 'Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a)|
|Place(s) of Residence||Kufa, Ahwaz|
|Activities||The judge of Ahwaz, commander of infantry in the Battle of Jamal, one of the leaders of the Tawwabun, a member of al-Mukhtar uprising|
Rifā'a b. Shaddād al-Bajalī al-Fityānī (Arabic: رِفاعَة بن شَدّاد البَجَلي الفِتیاني) (d. 66/686) was a companion of Imam 'Ali (a), he participated in the Battle of Jamal and Siffin, and was the judge of Ahwaz during Imam 'Ali's reign.
Rifa'a was one of the first people who send a letter to Imam al-Husayn (a) and asked him to come to Kufa. After the event of 'Ashura', he became one of the leaders of Tawwabun uprising. Afterward, he joined Uprising of al-Mukhtar. Historical sources reported that he left al-Mukhtar after a short while. However, he was killed in al-Mukhtar's uprising.
He was from the tribe of Bajila. Most people of this tribe supported Imam 'Ali (a) during his caliphate, and in the Battle of Siffin, almost all of them were in Imam's army. In the time of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a), most of them studied and learned hadith under these two Imams and became a companion to them and the succeeding Imams. Al-Najashi mentions more than fifty narrators in his book who are affiliated to this tribe.
During Imam Ali's Life
Accompanying Malik al-Ashtar, Rifa'a participated the funeral of Abu Dhar in Rabadha. During Imam 'Ali's caliphate, he was appointed as the judge of Ahwaz by the Imam (a). Imam 'Ali's letter to him has been reported in sources including the book Da'a'im al-Islam. Recently, this latter has been published separately.
After Imam 'Ali (a)
Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned his name among Imam al-Hasan's (a) companions. During Mu'awiya's reign, when Ziyad b. Abih summoned the companions of Hujr b. 'Adi, he and 'Amr b. Hamiq fled to al-Madain. But on their way to Mosul, 'Amr got sick and asked Rifa'a to leave him and save his life; so Rifa'a went to Mosul.
In the Event of Karbala
He was one of the five commanders in Tawwabun who revolute for avenging Imam al-Husayn (a) and fought Yazid's Army in 'Ayn al-Warda. When he saw that Sulayman b. Surad al-Khuza'i -the head of Tawwabun- and many others have been martyred so that they can not resist anymore, he ordered a withdrawal and returned to Iraq.
Back in Iraq, he joined al-Mukhtar's uprising as he said that he wanted to avenge the martyrs of Karbala and 'Ayn al-Warda. But when he sensed that al-Mukhtar has hidden some of his intentions, he left al-Mukhtar and joined his opponents. However, when he heard al-Mukhtar's opponents chanting "Ya la Tharat al-'Uthman" (O, avengers of 'Uthamn) he got angry and fought them until he was killed (66/686).
- Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 205, 60, 228-229.
- Najāshī, Rijāl, 71, 412, 215, 119, 413, 446, 238, 302.
- Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 65.
- Tamīmī Maghribī, Daʿāim al-Islām, vol. 1, p. 227; vol. 2, p. 36, 38, 176, 258, 404, 442, 445, 459, 487, 499, 530, 534; Nūrī, Mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol. 2, p. 450; vol. 13, p. 393; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 79, p. 101.
- Letter of Imam Ali (a) to Rifa'a b. Shaddad
- Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 468.
- Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 205.
- Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 94.
- Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 715; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 272.
- Ibn Qutayba, al-Imāma wa l-sīyāsa, vol. 2, p. 7; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 157; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 352.
- Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 6, p. 364.
- Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 264.
- Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 291.
- Ziriklī, al-Aʿlām, vol. 3, p. 29; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 6, p. 50, 616; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 235; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 267.
- Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 4, p. 87.
- Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 5, p. 227.
- Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-ṣaḥāba. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409 AH.
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- Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Wafaʾ, 1404 AH.
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