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'Udhayb al-Hijanat

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ʿUdhayb al-Hijānāt (Arabic: عُذَیبُ الهِجانات) is a travel station near Kufa. In the Event of Karbala, Imam al-Husayn (a) and his companions had a sojourn there on Dhu l-Hijja 28, 60/September 29, 680. In 'Udhayb al-Hijanat, four people from Kufa, including, and guided by, Tirimmah b. 'Adi, joined Imam al-Husayn (a). They delivered the news of Qays b. Mushir al-Saydawi's martyrdom and a report about the circumstances of Kufa to the Imam (a). In this same station, Tirimmah heard the news of the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a) and his companions.

Location and the Reason for Appellation

'Udhayb al-Hijanat is located four miles from Qadisiyya and 32 miles from Mughitha on the way from Mecca to Kufa. This area belonged to Banu Tamim.[1]

The word "'Udhayb" is a diminished form of "'adhb," which means tasty water.[2] And the word "Hijanat" is a plural form of "Hijan," meaning a noble and selected camel. This area was a pasture of Nu'man's camels, and so it was known with these camels.[3]

Events

Imam al-Husayn (a) and his companions had a sojourn in 'Udhayb al-Hijanat on Dhu l-Hijja 28, 60 (September 29, 680). In this station, the Imam (a) heard the news of Qays b. Mushir's martyrdom.[4] The road from 'Udhayb al-Hijanat goes through Qadisiyya and al-Hira to Kufa. But Imam al-Husayn (a) went on towards Qasr Bani Muqatil in order not to go to Kufa, as he was forced to not go to Kufa by al-Hurr b. Yazid.[5]

In 'Udhayb al-Hijanat, Nafi' b. Hilal, Mujammi' b. 'Abd Allah al-'A'idhi, 'Amr b. Khalid al-Saydawi, and their guide, Tirimmah b. 'Adi joined Imam al-Husayn (a).[6] Al-Hurr b. Yazid al-Riyahi sought to arrest or return them, but the Imam (a) did not let him do so. They let the Imam (a) know about the circumstances of Kufa, the murder of Qays b. Musahhar, and the preparation of a huge army to combat the Imam (a).[7] Majma' b. 'Abd Allah al-'A'idhi said:

The noblemen and prominent men of Kufa are against you because they are bribed. Other people have their hearts with you but their swords against you.[8]

There was a dialogue between Imam al-Husayn (a) and Tirimmah in this station.[9] Tirimmah offered some proposals to the Imam (a), which he rejected. It was in this same station or somewhere close to it where Tirimmah heard Sama'a b. Badr about Imam al-Husayn's (a) martyrdom.[10]

According to al-Sayyid b. Tawus, it was in 'Udhayb al-Hijanat where Hurr received 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad's letter to the effect that more restrictions should be placed upon Imam al-Husayn (a).[11] According to other historical sources, the letter was received by Hurr in Nineveh.[12]

Notes

  1. Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 4, p. 92.
  2. Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 4, p. 92.
  3. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 49; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 404.
  4. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 172; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 50.
  5. Jaʿfarīyān, Aṭlas-i Shīʿa, p. 66, map no 35.
  6. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 49; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 172; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 173.
  7. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 50; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 172.
  8. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 174; Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 49.
  9. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 174; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 173; Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 50.
  10. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 50; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 407; Ibn Miskawayh, Tajārub al-umam, vol. 2, p. 67.
  11. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Luhūf, p. 78.
  12. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 408; Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 51-52; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 83.

References

  • Abū ʿAlī Miskawayh, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Tajārub al-umam. Edited by Abu l-Qāsim Imāmī. Tehran: Surūsh, 1379 Sh.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Jumal min ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Suhayl Zakār & Riyāḍ al-Ziriklī. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1417 AH.
  • Ḥamawī, Yāqūt b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Muʿjam al-buldān. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1995.
  • Ibn Kathīr al-Dimashqī, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. Al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1407AH-1986.
  • Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Abī l-Karam. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, 1385 AH-1965.
  • Jaʿfarīyān, Rasūl. Aṭlas-i Shīʿa. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Sāzmān-i Jughrāfīyāyī-yi Nīrūhā-yi Musallaḥ, 1387 SH.
  • Ibn Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā. Al-Luhūf ʿalā qatlay al-ṭufūf. Tehran: Nashr-i Jahān, 1348 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿalā l-ʿibād. Qom: Kungira-yi Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1413 AH.
  • Sharāb, Muḥammad Ḥasan. Maʿālim al-athīra. Tehran: Mashʿar, 1383 Sh.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī. Edited by Muḥammad Abu l-faḍl Ibrāhīm. Beirut: Dar al-Turāth, 1387 AH.