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Abu Bakr b. al-Imam Ali (a)

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Descendant of Imam
Abu Bakr b. al-Imam Ali (a)
آرامگاه شهدای کربلا2.jpg
Burial Place of most of the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala, near the holy grave of Imam al-Husayn (a) in his shrine
Teknonym Abu Bakr
Father Imam Ali (a)
Mother some sources: Layla, the daughter of Mas'ud al-Nahshali, others: Umm al-Banin, the daughter of Hazm al-Kalbi.
Children According to early sources he had no children.
Demise martyred in 61/680
Place of Burial near the holy grave of Imam al-Husayn (a) in his shrine

Abū Bakr b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: أبوبَکر بن عَلیّ بن اَبیطالِب) was among the children of Imam Ali (a) and one of the Martyrs of Karbala. His mother was Layla bt. Mas'ud b. Khalid al-Tamimi. According to some sources, he was the first of Imam Ali's (a) children who fought in the battlefield on the Day of Ashura to support his brother, Imam al-Husayn (a).

Name and Lineage

His teknonym was Abu Bakr, but his name is not known.[1] His name is said to be 'Abd Allah[2] or 'Ubayd Allah[3] or Muhammad al-Asghar.[4] According to the majority of biographers, his mother was Layla, the daughter of Mas'ud al-Nahshali.[5] Others hold that his mother was Umm al-Banin, the daughter of Hizam al-Kalbi.[6] According to early sources, Abu Bakr had no children.[7]

In the Battle of Karbala

According to many sources, he was one of the Martyrs of Karbala.[8] However, some scholars such as al-Tabari,[9] Abu l-Faraj[10] and Ibn Shahrashub,[11] have cast doubts over his martyrdom. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid mentioned him among the Martyrs of Karbala, and in his account of Imam 'Ali's (a) children, he took Abu Bakr to be Muhammad al-Asghar's teknonym.[12]

According to some sources, he was the first of Imam 'Ali's (a) sons who received Imam al-Husayn's (a) permission to fight in the battlefield on the Day of Ashura.[13] There is a hadith from Imam al-Baqir (a) according to which a man from the Hamdan tribe martyred him.[14] There is another account on which he was martyred by Zajr b. Qays or 'Aqaba al-Ghanawi.[15] However, some scholars hold that Abu Bakr's corpse was found in a creek, and so it is not known who martyred him.[16] According to some sources, his grave is located in the mass grave of Hashimid martyrs in the Holy Shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a) near his burial place.[17]

In Ziyara al-Shuhada'

In Bihar al-anwar, the name of Abu Bakr b. 'Ali is mentioned in one of Imam al-Husayn's (a) ziyaras:

السَّلَامُ عَلَیک یا أَبَا بَکرٍ بْنَ عَلِی بْنِ أَبِی طَالِبٍ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَ بَرَکاتُهُ مَا أَحْسَنَ بَلَاءَک وَ أَزْکی سَعْیک وَ أَسْعَدَک بِمَا نِلْتَ مِنَ الشَّرَفِ وَ فُزْتَ بِهِ مِنَ الشَّهَادَةِ فَوَاسَیتَ أَخَاک وَ إِمَامَک وَ مَضَیتَ عَلَی یقِینِک حَتَّی لَقِیتَ رَبَّک صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَیک وَ ضَاعَفَ اللَّهُ مَا أَحْسَنَ بِهِ إِلَیک

(Peace be upon you, O Aba Bakr b. 'Ali b. Abi Talib, as well as Divine mercy and His blessings. How beautiful was your trial! How pure was your try! And how happy you are for the dignity you have achieved and for the martyrdom! You helped your brother and your Imam and you acted upon your certainty until you met your Lord. God's prayers be to you and may God double your good deed!)[18]

Notes

  1. Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 91.
  2. Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 112.
  3. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 2, p. 302.
  4. Masʿūdī, al-Tanbīh wa al-ishrāf, p. 275; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 254.
  5. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 14; Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 210; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 81; Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muntaẓam, vol. 5, p. 69.
  6. Dīnawarī, al-Imāma wa l-sīyāsa, vol. 2, p. 6.
  7. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 14; Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 3, p. 213.
  8. Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Tārīkh Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, p. 145; Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muntaẓam, vol. 5, p. 69; Bayhaqī, Lubāb al-ansāb, vol. 1, p. 399.
  9. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 154.
  10. Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 86.
  11. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib, vol. 4, p. 122.
  12. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 355.
  13. Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 112; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 2, p. 302.
  14. Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 86; Bayhaqī, Lubāb al-ansāb, vol. 1, p. 399.
  15. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 355; Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 112.
  16. Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 86.
  17. Bayhaqī, Lubāb al-ansāb, vol. 1, p. 399.
  18. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 98, p. 245.

References

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  • Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn. Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn. 3rd edition. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1419 AH.
  • Bayhaqī, ʿAlī b. Ẓayd al-. Lubāb al-ansāb wa l-alqāb wa l-aʿqāb. Edited by Sayyid Mahdī Rajāʾī and Maḥmūd Marʿashī. 1st edition. Qom: Kitābkhāna-yi Āyat Allāh al-Marʿashī, 1428 AH.
  • Dīnawarī, Aḥmad b. Dāwūd al-. Al-Imāma wa l-sīyāsa. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwāʾ, 1410 AH.
  • Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Aḥmad b. Aʿtham. Kitāb al-Futūḥ. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwaʾ, 1411 AH-1991.
  • Ibn al-Jawzī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī. Al-Muntaẓam fī tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Edited by Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭā and Musṭafā ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭā. 1st edition. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1412 AH.
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  • Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Al-Tanbīh wa al-ishrāf. Translated by Abū l-Qāsim Pāyanda. 2nd edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i ʿIlmī wa Farhangī, 1356 Sh.
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