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Yanbu

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Yanbuʿ (Arabic: یَنبُع) is a city on the west of Medina, known for its abundant springs of water and Mount Radwa. The city was conquered by Muslims in 2/623.

Imam 'Ali (a) bought the lands around the area from Muslims, and by improvement of its agriculture, he turned it to an endowment for Alids. Children of Imam al-Hasan (a) inhabited this area.

Historical events that took place in Yanbu include Imam Sajjad’s giving refuge to the family of Marwan b. Hakam during the Event of Harra and the hiding of al-Nafs al-Zakiyya there.

Location and Naming

Yanbu is located on the coast of the Red Sea[1] in Hijaz.[2] The city is part of Medina,[3] at a distance of seven[4] or nine stations.[5] The distance between Yanbu and Medina is about 225 km.[6]

In the past, the area had many palm groves, agricultural lands,[7] and springs of water.[8] It was called “Yanbu” because of the abundance of its springs of water.[9].[10]

Yanbu was located on the paths of hajj caravans from Egypt[11] and Levant[12] to Medina and Mecca. It is one station away from Mount Radwa.[13] During al-Mansur's reign, al-Nafs al-Zakiyya hid in Mount Radwa for a while.[14]

Imam ʿAli’s Endowments

Yanbu was conquered by Muslims without a war during the second ghazwa of the Prophet (s)[15] under the Battle of Dhu-l-'Ashira in 2/623.[16] The Prophet (s) gave the area to a group of Muslims.[17] Imam ʿAli (a) bought the area from them and began agriculture and water extraction there.[18] Some people believe that the lands were given to Imam ʿAli (a) by the Prophet (s)[19] or 'Umar[20] as an iqtaʿ (a form of tax farming).

Some sources talk about Amir al-Mu'minin’s many endowments in this area.[21] Imam al-Husayn (a) gave the interests of its agricultural products to 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far b. Abi Talib, who in turn gave it to Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan.[22] Imam ʿAli’s household still had estates in the area. For instance, during the Event of Harra Imam al-Sajjad (a) went to Yanbu,[23] and on some accounts, he took with him his own as well as Marwan's family.[24]

During Saffah's reign, 'Abd Allah b. Hasan al-Muthanna tried to reclaim the area from the caliph,[25] which led to disputes among the progeny of ʿAli (a) over Yanbu’s endowments.[26] Finally, Mahdi al-'Abbasi gave the lands to 'Alids.[27]

People of the Area

In early sources, most people of Yanbu are said to be Ansar,[28] Hasanids,[29] Zaydis,[30] and the Jahmi tribe.[31] A prominent figure from this area was Hasan b. Qasim b. Muhammad who left Yanbu to Morocco in 664/1265.[32] He was the ancestor of Alawite (Alaouite) noblemen in Morocco who later established a government there.[33]

Notes

  1. Ziriklī, al-Aʿlām, vol. 6, p. 283; Aḥmad, Ḥijāz dar ṣadr-i islām, p. 97.
  2. Maqdisī, Aḥsan al-taqāsīm, p. 29.
  3. Samʿānī, al-Ansāb, vol. 13, p. 528.
  4. Sakhāwī, al-Baladāniyyāt, p. 298; Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 5, p. 450.
  5. Masʿūdī, al-Tanbīh wa al-ishrāf, p. 203.
  6. Ṣabrī Pāshā, Mawsūʿa mirʾāt al-ḥaramayn, vol. 5, p. 146.
  7. Ḥāfiẓ Abrū, Jughrāfīyā-yi Ḥāfiẓ Abrū, vol. 1, p. 218.
  8. Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 5, p. 450; Samhudī, Wafāʾ al-wafā, vol. 4, p. 166.
  9. Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 5, p. 450; Samhudī, Wafāʾ al-wafā, vol. 4, p. 166.
  10. Yanbuʿ is derived from the root n-b-ʿ, which means springing
  11. Sakhāwī, al-Baladāniyyāt, p. 298.
  12. Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 5, p. 450.
  13. Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Baghdādī, Marāṣid al-ʾiṭṭlāʿ, vol. 3, p. 1485; Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 5, p. 450.
  14. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 7, p. 535.
  15. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 2, p. 281.
  16. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 66; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 2, p. 408.
  17. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, v0l. 1, p. 20.
  18. Samhudī, Wafāʾ al-wafā, vol. 4, p. 166; Aḥmad, Ḥijāz dar ṣadr-i islām, p. 98.
  19. Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 5, p. 450.
  20. Balādhurī, Futūḥ al-buldān, p. 24; Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Baghdādī, Marāṣid al-ʾiṭṭlāʿ, vol. 3, p. 1485.
  21. Aḥmad, Ḥijāz dar ṣadr-i islām, p. 98; Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 5, p. 450.
  22. Aḥmad, Ḥijāz dar ṣadr-i islām, p. 99.
  23. Balʿamī, Tārīkhnāma-yi ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 718.
  24. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 485.
  25. Aḥmad, Ḥijāz dar ṣadr-i islām, p. 99.
  26. Abu l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 198.
  27. Aḥmad, Ḥijāz dar ṣadr-i islām, p. 99.
  28. Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muntaẓam, vol. 1, p. 142.
  29. Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 5, p. 450.
  30. Sakhāwī, al-Baladāniyyāt, p. 298.
  31. Ibn Ḥabīb Baghdādī, al-Munammaq, p. 133.
  32. Salāwī, al-Istiqṣāʾ, vol. 1, p. 427.
  33. Salāwī, al-Istiqṣāʾ, vol. 1, p. 427.

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