Priority: b, Quality: b
Without references

Nasibi

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search

Nāṣibī (Arabic: ناصبي) is someone who is hostile, and publicly displays his or her hostility, towards Imam Ali (a) or other persons from Ahl al-Bayt (a). Instances of Nasibism is said to include the denial of the virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (a), the cursing of Imams (a), and enmity towards Shi'as.

According to Shiite jurists, Nasibis are najis and are treated as disbelievers. Thus, it is impermissible to eat an animal slaughtered by Nasibis, to pay charity to them, or to marry them, and they cannot inherit from Muslims.

According to some contemporary scholars, Nasibism officially emerged after the murder of Uthman and the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty. Nasibism in this period is characterized by prevention of the propagation of Ahl al-Bayt's virtues, murder of Shi'as, and the cursing of Imam Ali (a) on minbars. Nasibis are said to include Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan, Khawarij, Uthmaniya, and Hariz b. Uthman.

Shiite scholars wrote books and essays concerning Nasibis and Nasibism.

Notion and Instances of Nasibism

Nasibism is to publicly display ones hostility towards Ahl al-Bayt (a) and their followers[1]. Thus, enmity towards Shi'as[2] or followers of Ahl al-Bayt (a)[3] counts as Nasibism only if it is because of their love for Ahl al-Bayt (a)[4] and following them[5].

The majority of Muslim scholars characterize Nasibis as people who are hostile towards Ahl al-Bayt (a) and publicly display their hostility[6], and according to some scholars, they also take animus towards Imam Ali (a) as part of their religious beliefs[7]. They take the following as instances of Nasibism: belief in the impiety (fisq) or disbelief of Imam Ali (a)[8], belief in the superiority of others over Imam Ali (a)[9], the cursing of Ahl al-Bayt (a)[10], the denial of their virtues[11], and the refusal to mention them[12].

Hasan b. Farhan al-Maliki, a Sunni scholar, counts any deviation from Imam Ali (a) and Ahl al-Bayt (a) as an instance of Nasibism[13]. His instances of Nasibism include the rejection of correct hadiths in praise of Imam Ali (a), believing that the Imam (a) made mistakes in battles of the period of his caliphate, excessive praise of his enemies, skepticism about his caliphate, and the refusal to pledge one's allegiance to him[14]. Al-Muhaddith al-Bahrani, a Shiite jurist, counts the priority of others to Imam Ali (a) with regard to the position of Imamate (that is, the acceptance of their imamate) as an instance of animus towards Ali (a) and Nasibism[15].

Sunnis are not Nasibis

The majority of Shiite jurists characterize Nasibis as people who are hostile, and publicly display their hostility, towards Ahl al-Bayt (a). Thus, in their view, Sunni Muslims who are not hostile towards Ahl al-Bayt (a) do not count as Nasibis[16]. However, al-Muhaddith al-Bahrani maintains that Nasibis are people who give priority to others over Imam Ali (a) with regard to Imamate, or believe in their Imamate[17]. His evidence is a hadith in which the belief in the imamate of any person other than the Shiite Imams counts as Nasibism[18]. Al-Najafi, the author of Jawahir al-kalam, takes the view to be contrary to the practice of Shi'as[19]. Moreover, doubts are cast over the validity of the chain of the transmission and implications of the hadith cited by al-Bahrani[20].

An essay under "the property of the Nasibi and that not all opponents are Nasibis" is attributed to al-Sayyid Abd Allah al-Jaza'iri, a Shiite scholar, in which he rejects the view that Sunni Muslims are Nasibis.

Rulings of Nasibis

According to Shiite jurists, Nasibis are najis[21] and are treated as disbelievers[22]. In books of jurisprudence, Nasibis are discussed in the section on the najasa of disbelievers[23]. Here are some jurisprudential rulings of Nasibis:

Emergence of Nasibism

Some contemporary scholars believe that Nasibism started after the murder of Uthman and became official during the Umayyad dynasty[32]. According to historical sources, when Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan appointed Mughira b. Shu'ba as the ruler of Kufa in 41/661-62, he commanded him to curse Imam Ali and defame his companions[33]. Umayyad caliphs from Mu'awiya to the period of Umar b. Abd al-Aziz cursed Ali[34] on their minbars[35]. Al-Hakim al-Nayshaburi characterizes the forth/tenth century as replete with opposition and hostility to Imam Ali (a), saying that his motivation for writing his Fada'il Fatima al-Zahra (virtues of Fatima al-Zahra) was to resist the strand. He characterizes the atmosphere of the time as follows:

"The time has made us captives to leaders for the proximity to whom people appeal to animus towards, and humiliation of, the family of the Messenger of God."[36]

Consequences

Some consequences of Nasibism in the Umayyad period are as follows:

Well-Known Nasibis

Some people are referred to as Nasibis:

  • Uthmaniyya: those who believed that Imam Ali (a) murdered Uthman or helped his murder[44]. Thus, they refused to pledge their allegiance to him[45]. Ibn al-Hajar al-Asqalani, a Sunni biographer of the ninth/fifteenth century, has characterized Nasibis as those who believe that Imam Ali (a) murdered, or helped murder, Uthman[46]. Because of their exaggerated love for Uthman, these people defamed and slandered Imam Ali (a)[47].
  • Khawarij: a group of Imam Ali's army in the Battle of Siffin who accused Ali b. Abi Talib of disbelief and rioted against him. Because of their animus towards Imam Ali (a), they are also referred to as "Nasiba"[48].
  • Al-Hajjaj b. Yusuf al-Thaqafi (d. 95/713-14): according to al-Mas'udi, a historiographer of the forth/tenth century, al-Hajjaj was hostile towards Ahl al-Bayt (a)[49]. He murdered those who did not express their disassociation from Imam Ali (a) and his companions[50]. He slaughtered Shi'as and arrested them on ground of the slightest accusation or suspicion. Under his rule, people had rather be accused of disbelief than of being a Shi'a of Ali (a)[51]. In the period of the caliphate of Abd al-Malik, al-Hajjaj was at first the ruler of Hijaz and then the ruler of Iraq[52].
  • Ibn Taymiyya: he is the intellectual leader of today's Salafis. Some Shiite scholars appeal to his denial of the Hadith of Radd al-Shams[58], his rejection of Hadith al-Ghadir[59], and his enmity towards Shi'as as evidence that he was a Nasibi[60]. Moreover, according to Ibn al-Hajar al-Asqalani, Ibn Taymiyya was accused of hypocrisy because of his remarks about Imam Ali (a)[61].

Works

Shiite scholars and researchers wrote some books about Nasibism and its jurisprudential rulings[62], including:

  • Al-Nasb wa l-Nawasib by Muhsin Mu'allim in Arabic. The book contains discussions of the notion of Nasibism, its instances[63], its rulings[64], and a bibliography of the literature on Nasibism[65]. The author defines Nasibism in terms of animus towards Imam Ali (a)[66], referring to 250 people as Nasibis or at least accused of being Nasibis[67]. The book also refers to areas in which Nasibis have lived[68]. It was published by Dar al-Hadi Publications in 1418/1997[69].
  • Usul al-islam wa l-iman wa hukm al-nasib wa ma yata'allaq bih by al-Wahid al-Bihbahani[71] are two other works concerning Nasibism.

Moreover, titles of some rejections written by Shiite scholars against their opponents involve the term, "Nawasib" (Nasibis)[72]. They include Masa'ib al-nawasib fi l-radd ala l-nawaqid al-rawafid by Qadi Nur Allah Shushtari[73] and Mathalib al-nawasib by Abd al-Jalil al-Qazwini[74]. The book, al-Nasb wa l-nawasib, refers to twenty nine books concerning Nasibis and Nasibism[75].

See Also

Notes

  1. Al-Ṭurayhī, Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn, vol. 2, p. 174.
  2. Al-Shahīd al-Thānī, Ujūbat masāʾil wa rasāʾil, p. 227; al-Najafi, Jawahir al-kalam, vol. 6, p. 64.
  3. Al-Shahīd al-Thānī, Rawd al-jinan, vol. 1, p. 420.
  4. Al-Shahīd al-Thānī, Rawḍ al-jinān, vol. 1, p. 420.
  5. Al-Ṭurayhī, Majma' al-bayan, vol. 2, p. 174.
  6. See: Al-Shahīd al-Thānī, Rawd al-jinan, vol. 1, p. 420;al-Bahrani, al-Hada'iq al-nadira, vol. 5, p. 186, vol. 24, p. 60; Subhani, al-Khums, p. 60.
  7. Ibn Taymiyya, Majmu'at al-fatawa, vol. 4, p. 429; Firuz Abadi, Qamus al-muhit, under the root term nasb.
  8. Ibn Taymiyya, Majmu'a al-fatawa, vol. 4, p. 429.
  9. Fadil Miqdad, al-Tanqih al-ra'i', vol. 2, p. 421.
  10. Fadil Miqdad, al-Tanqih al-ra'i', vol. 2, p. 421.
  11. Fadil Miqdad, al-Tanqih al-ra'i', vol. 2, p. 421.
  12. Al-Shahīd al-Thānī, Rawd al-jinan, vol. 1, p. 420.
  13. Al-Maliki, Inqadh al-tarikh alislami, p. 298.
  14. Al-Maliki, Inqadh al-tarikh alislami, p. 298.
  15. Al-Bahrani, al-Hada'iq al-nadira, vol. 24, p. 60.
  16. See: al-Saduq, Man layahduruh al-faqih, vol. 3, p. 408; al-Najafi, Jawahir al-kalam, vol. 6, p. 64.
  17. Al-Bahrani, al-Hada'iq al-nadira, vol. 24, p. 60.
  18. Al-Bahrani, al-Hada'iq al-nadira, vol. 24, p. 60.
  19. Al-Najafi, Jawahir al-kalam, vol. 6, p. 64.
  20. Tawallayi, Milak-i nasib ingari, ahkam wa athar-i muirattib bar nasb dar fiqh, vol. 52.
  21. Al-Sadr, Ma wara' al-fiqh, vol. 1, p. 145.
  22. See: al-Tusi, al-Nihaya, p. 5.
  23. al-Najafi, Jawahir al-kalam, vol. 6, pp. 63-65; al-Bahrani, al-Hada'iq al-nadira, vol. 5, pp. 177-185.
  24. al-Tusi, Tahdhib al-ahkam, vol. 9, p. 71; Imam Khomeini, Risala al-nijat, p. 325.
  25. Al-Saduq, Man la yahduruh al-faqih, vol. 3, p. 408; al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, Jami' al-maqasid, vol. 13, p. 15.
  26. Ibn al-Barraj, al-Muhadhdhab, vol. 1, p. 129.
  27. Al-Tusi, al-Nihaya, p. 112.
  28. Al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, al-Mu'tabar, vol. 2, p. 766.
  29. Bahjat, Jami' al-masa'il, vol. 6, p. 156.
  30. Imam Khomeini, Risala al-naja, p. 325.
  31. Al-Tusi,al-Nihaya, p. 570.
  32. Kawtharī, Barrasī rīshiha-yi tārīkhi-yi naṣibīgarī, p. 99.
  33. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, vol. 5, p. 243;al-Ṭabari, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 254.
  34. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 5, p. 42.
  35. Al-Zamakhsharī, Rabiʿ al-abrār, vol. 2, p. 325.
  36. Ḥakim al-Nayshābūrī, Faḍaʾil Fāṭima al-ZahrāAl-Hakim al-Nayshaburi, p. 30.
  37. Kawtharī, Barrasī rīshiha-yi tārīkhi-yi naṣibīgarī, p. 104.
  38. Al-Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 20, p. 429.
  39. Ibn Sa ʿd, al-Ṭabaqʿt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 305.
  40. Ibn al-Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa al-nihāya, vol. 11, p. 124.
  41. Kawtharī, Barrasī rīshiha-yi tārīkhi-yi naṣibīgarī, pp. 104-105.
  42. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, ‘’al-Istiʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb, vol. 3, p. 1418.
  43. Ibn abi l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 4, pp. 56-57.
  44. Al-Muʿallim, al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib, p. 591.
  45. Al-Ṭabari, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 4, p. 430.
  46. Ibn Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb, vol. 8, p. 458.
  47. Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ al-bārī, vol. 7, p. 13.
  48. Al-Maqrizī,al-mawaʿiz wa l-iʿtibār fī dhikr al-khiṭaṭ wa l-āthārAl-Maqrizi, vol. 4, p. 428.
  49. See: al-Masʿudi, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 144.
  50. Al-Mughnīya, al-Shiʿa wa l-ḥakimun, pp. 94-96.
  51. Ibn Abi l-Ḥadid, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 11, p. 44.
  52. Ibn al-Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa al-nihāya, vol. 9, p. 117.
  53. Al-Samʿani, al-Ansāb, vol. 6, p. 95.
  54. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 2, p. 239.
  55. Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 2, p. 239.
  56. Ibn al-Kathir, al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 8, p. 50.
  57. Al-Mufid, al-Jamal, p. 117.
  58. Ibn Taymiyya, Minhaj al-sunna, vol. 8, p. 165.
  59. Ibn Taymiyya, Minhaj al-sunna, vol. 7, p. 319-320.
  60. Al Majd, Nishānihāyī az nāṣibīgarī-yi Ibn Taymīyya, pp. 17-25.
  61. Ibn Hajar, al-Durar al-kamina, vol. 1, p. 155.
  62. Al-Muʿallim, al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib, pp. 588-590.
  63. Al-Muʿallim, al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib, pp. 31-38.
  64. Al-Muʿallim, al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib, pp. 605-624.
  65. Al-Muʿallim, al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib, pp. 588-590.
  66. Al-Muʿallim, al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib, pp. 261-528.
  67. Al-Muʿallim, al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib, pp. 261-528.
  68. Al-Muʿallim, al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib, pp. 229-244.
  69. Al-Nasb wa al-nawasib
  70. Al-Bahrani, al-Hada'iq al-nadira, vol. 3, p. 405.
  71. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, al-Dhari'a, vol. 2, p. 176.
  72. Al-Muʿallim, al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib, pp. 588-590
  73. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, al-Dhari'a, vol. 19, p. 76.
  74. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, al-Dhari'a, vol. 3, p. 130.
  75. Al-Muʿallim, al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib, pp. 588-590.

References

  • Āqā Buzurg Tihrānī. Al-Dharīʿa ilā taṣānīf al-shīʿa. Tehran: Ismāʿīlīyān, 1408 AH.
  • Bahjat, Muḥammad Taqī. jamiʿ al-masāʾil. Qom: Office of that late Ayatollah Bahjat, 1426 AH.
  • Baḥrani, Yūsuf b. Aḥmad al-. Al-Ḥadāʾiq al-nādira fī aḥkām al- ʿitrat al-ṭāhira. Daftar-i Nashr-i Islami, 1405 AH.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Beirut: Jam'iyat al-Mustashriqin al-Almaniya, 1400 AH.
  • Fāḍil al-Miqdād, Miqdad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Al-Tanqīh al-rāʾiʿ lī mukhtaṣar al-shariʿa'. Qom: Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi Library Publications, 1404 AH.
  • Ḥakim al-Nayshābūrī, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. Faḍaʾil Fāṭima al-Zahrā. Cairo, Dar al-Furqan, 1429 AH.
  • Ibn Abi l-Ḥadīd, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd b. Hibat Allāh. Sharḥ Nahj al-Balāgha. Qom: Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi Library, 1404 AH.
  • Ibn al-Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Al-Kāmil fi l-tārīkh. Beirut: Dar Sadir, 1965.
  • Ibn Barraj al-Ṭarābulusī, ʿAbd al- ʿAzīz. Al-Muhadhdhab. Qom: Daftar-i Intisharat-i Islami, 1406 AH.
  • Ibn Ḥajar al- ʿAsqalānī, Ahmad b. Ali. Al-Durar al-kamina fi a'yan al-mi'a al-thamina. Beirut: Dar Sadir.
  • Ibn Ḥajar al- ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Fatḥ al-bārī bi sharḥ Saḥiḥ al-Bukhāri. Beirut: Ihya' al-Turath al-Arabi, 1408 AH.
  • Ibn Idrīs al-Ḥillī, Muḥammad b. Manṣūr. Ujūbat masāʾil wa rasāʾil fī mukhtalaf funūn al-maʿrifa. Qom: Dalil-i Ma, 1429 AH.
  • Ibn Kathīr al-Dimashqī, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. Al-Bidāya wa al-nihāya. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1407 AH.
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad b. Saʿd. Al-Ṭabaqʿt al-kubrā. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiya, 1410 AH.
  • Ibn Taymīyya, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm. Majmu'at al-fatawa.
  • Ibn Taymiyya, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Halīm. Minhāj al-sunna al-nabawiyya fī naqd al-kalām al-shīʿa al-qadarīyya. Saudi Arabia: Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University, 1406 AH.
  • Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istiʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Beirut: Dar al-Jalil, 1412 AH.
  • Imām Khomeinī. Risāla-yi najāt al-ʿibād. Tehran: The Institute for Compilation and Publication of Imam Khomeini's Works.
  • Mālikī, Ḥasan b. Farḥān al-. Inqādh al-tārīkh al-īslāmī. Jordan: al-Yamama al-Hafiya Inistitute, 1418 AH.
  • Maqrizī, Aḥmad b. Ali. Al-mawaʿiz wa l-iʿtibār fī dhikr al-khiṭaṭ wa l-āthār. London: 2002.
  • Masʿud‭i, ʿAl‭ b. Husayn. Muruj al-Dhahab wa ma'adin al-jawhar. Qom: Dar al-Hijra, 1409 AH.
  • Mizzī, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. Tahdhīb al-kamāl fī asma' al-rijal. Beirut: al-Risala Inistitute, 1413 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad. Al-Jamal wa al-nuṣra li sayyid al-ʿitra fī ḥarb al-Baṣra. Qom: the World Conference of the Millennium of al-Shaykh al-Mufid, 1413 AH.
  • Mughnīa, Muḥammad Jawād al-. Al-shīʿa wa l-ḥākimūn. Beirut: Dar al-Jawad, 2000.
  • Muḥaqqi al-Ḥillī, Jaʿfar b. Ḥusayn al-. Al-Muʿtabar fī sharḥ al-mukhtaṣar. Qom: Sayyid al-Shuhada Inistitute, 1407 AH.
  • Muḥaqqiq al-Karakī, ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn al-. Jamiʿ al-maqāṣid fī sharḥ al-qawāʿid. Qom: Al al-Bayt Inistitute, 1414 AH.
  • Muḥsin al-Muʿallim. Al-Naṣb wa al-nawāṣib. Beirut: Dar al-Hadi, 1418 AH.
  • Najafī, Muḥammad Ḥasan al-. Jawāhir al-kalām fī sharḥ Sharaʾiʿ al-islām. Beirut: Dar Ihya' al-Turath al-Arabi, 1404 AH.
  • Ṣadr, Sayyid Muḥammad al-. Ma warāʾ al-fiqh. Beirut: Dar al-Adwa' li l-Tiba'a wa al-Nashr wa al-Tawzi', 1420 AH.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAli al-. Man lā yahḍuruh al-faqīh. Qom: Daftar-i Intisharat-i Islami, 1413 AH.
  • Samʿānī, ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Ansāb. Heydar Abad: Majlis Da'irat al-Ma'arif al-Uthmaniyya, 1382 AH.
  • Shahīd al-Thānī, Zayn al-Din b. ʿAli. Rawḍ al-jinān fī sharḥ irshād al-adhān. Qom: Daftar-i Nashr-Islami, 1402 AH.
  • Subḥānī, Jaʿfar. Al-Khums fi l-shariʿa al-islāmīya al-gharra'. Qom: Imam Sadiq (a) Inistitute, 1420 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīri al-. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Beirut: Dar al-Turath, 1387 AH.
  • Ṭurayhī, Fakhr al-Dīn al-. Majmaʿ al-Baḥrayn. Tehran Murtadawi, 1416 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. Ḥasan al-. Al-Nihāya fī mujarrad li fiqh wa l-fatawa. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Arabi, 1400 AH.
  • Zamakhsharī, Maḥmūd b. ʿ Umar. Rabīʿ al-abrār wa nuṣuṣ al-akhbār. Beirut: al-A'lami li l-Matbu'at Inistitute, 1412 AH.
  • Kawtharī, Aḥmad. Barrasī rīshiha-yi tārīkhi-yi naṣibīgarī. No. 16, winter of 1393 Sh.
  • Al-Majd Sayyid Hasan. Nishānihāyī az nāṣibīgarī-yi Ibn Taymīyya. Sirat Quarterly, no. 12, 1393 Sh
  • Tawallāyi, Raḥmat, Naqībī, Sayyid Abu l-Qāsim. Milāk-i naṣib ingārī, aḥkām wa āthār-i murtabiṭ bar naṣb dar fiqh-i imāmiya. Fiqh wa Usul Journal, Spring of 1396 Sh.