Abu Dhar al-Ghifari
|Abu Dhar al-Ghifari|
The remains of Mosque of Abi Dhar in al-Rabadha which is said that his grave is there
|Full Name||Jundab b. Junada b. Sufyan al-Ghifari|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina, Syria, al-Rabadha|
|Known for||One of the prominent companions of Imam Ali (a)|
|Other Activities||Protesting against caliphs especially in the Event of Saqifa, protesting against prohibition of writing hadiths, criticizing Uthman for giving the treasury money to others as a gift|
Jundab b. Junāda b. Sufyān al-Ghifārī (Arabic: جُندَب بن جُنادة بن سفيان الغِفاري) (b. 33 BH/590 - d. 32/653) known as Abū Dhar al-Ghifārī (أبوذر الغفاري) was one of the greatest companions of Prophet Muhammad (s) and a companion of Imam Ali (a); he was also one of those who were known as the four pillars of the Shiite. He was a true companion of Prophet Muhammad (s) and Ahl al-Bayt (a). Numerous virtues and excellences have been narrated for him by both Sunni and Shi'a. Scholars of rijal have considered him as one of the four pillars [of the Shiite]. Abu Dhar criticized the actions of Uthman, the third Caliph. As a result, he was exiled to Syria and then to al-Rabadha, where he passed away.
Birth, Lineage, and Characteristics
Abu Dhar was born twenty years before the emergence of Islam, in Banu Ghifar, a famous and noble tribe among the Arabs. His father, Junada, was the son of Ghifar and his mother, Ramla bt. al-Waqi'a, was from Banu Ghifar b. Malil. Historians disagree about his father’s name; they mentioned Yazid, Jundab, Ishraqa, 'Abd Allah and Sakan.
As Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani has stated: Abu Dhar was a tall, thin man with tanned skin. Ibn Sa'd described him as a tall man with white hair and beard. Al-Dhahabi also described him as a bulky man with a full beard.
Names and Titles
His name was Abu Dhar because of his child's name, Dhar. However, his real name is not certain, and it is mentioned differently in history books: Badr b. Jundab, Burayr b. 'Abd Allah, Burayr b. Junada, Burayr b. Ishraqa, Jundab b. 'Abd Allah, Jundab b. Sakan and Yazid b. Junada. It seems Jundub b. Yazid is his real and famous name.
Wife and Child
Conversion to Islam
Abu Dhar was among the first people who converted to Islam. According to some narrations, he was a monotheist before the emergence of Islam, he worshiped God three years before Bi'tha. Ibn Habib al-Baghdadi maintains that Abu Dhar considered drinking alcohol and gambling (azlam) unlawful in Jahiliyya era. After the emergence of Islam, he was among the first people who came to Prophet Muhammad (s) and converted to Islam. According to a narration, Abu Dhar said: "I was the fourth one who went to the Prophet (s) and told him: peace be upon you O Messenger of Allah! I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad (s) is His messenger; it made him delighted."
As Ibn al-'Abbas has said: "When Abu Dhar became aware of Prophet Muhammad's Prophethood in Mecca, he told his brother, Anis, "Inform me about the knowledge of the man who thinks he receives messages from the sky; listen to him and bring me the news." After visiting Prophet Muhammad (s), Anis returned to his brother. Then Abu Dhar himself went to Mecca to find Muhammad (s). Abu Dhar alongside Ali b. Abi Talib (a) visited Muhammad (s) in his house. Abu Dhar was the first one who said to Prophet: "Salam upon you, O Messenger of Allah". Then Abu Dhar converted to Islam after articulating Shahadatayn (Islamic creed declaring belief in the oneness of God and acceptance of Muhammad (s) as God's messenger).
Shi'a sources reported a different story on Abu Dhar's conversion to Islam. Al-Kulayni reported a narration from Imam al-Sadiq (a), in which the story of Abu Dhar's conversion to Islam is mentioned alongside an extraordinary event.
Prophet Muhammad (s) said to Abu Dhar: "Well done Abu Dhar, you are a member of Ahl al-Bayt (a)". Elsewhere he said to the effect that Abu Dhar is the most honest person among all people. On another occasion, Prophet (s) compared piety and humbleness of Abu Dhar to that of Prophet Jesus (a).
Imam al-Baqir (a) said: After Prophet Muhammad (s) had passed away, everybody became apostate and left Ali b. Abi Talib (a) except three people: Salman al-Farsi, Abu Dar and Miqdad. 'Ammar b. Yasir was doubtful at first; however, he returned to Imam Ali (a).
Imam al-Sadiq (a) said about Abu Dhar's worship, the main part of his worship was thinking. He cried in fear of Allah so much that he hurt his eyes. Abu Dhar also said: I like three things that people hate: death, poverty and affliction. Imam al-Sadiq (a) explained, Abu Dhar meant death by order of Allah is better than living a sinful life; affliction in obeying Allah is better than health in disobeying Allah; and poverty in obeying Allah is better than committing sins in a prosperous life.
In Shi'a sources, Abu Dhar is considered one of Islam's four pillars, alongside Salman al-Farsi, Miqdad and Ammar b. Yasir. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid has narrated a hadith from Imam al-Kazim (a): On the Day of Judgment, a caller will call: Where are the disciples of Prophet Muhammad (s) those who did not break their promise; and then Salman, Abu Dhar and Miqdad would stand up.
Aqa Buzurg Tihrani mentioned two books about the characteristics and life of Abu Dhar: Akhbar Abi Dhar by Abu Mansur Zafar b. Hamdun Badra'i and Akhbar Abi Dhar al-Ghifari wa fada'iluh by Al-Shaykh al-Saduq.
Sayyid Ali Khan al-Madani wrote on Abu Dhar: "He was a notable scholar and a grand ascetic, who would give away 400 dinars [an old currency in Arab countries] every year and never saved any for himself."
Abu Nu'aym al-Isfahani also said: Abu Dhar served Prophet Muhammad (s) and learned the principles of Islam. He was against riba (usury) even before the emergence of Islam. Walking on the right path, he was never influenced by those who blamed him and the power of rulers never overwhelmed him.
Friendship with Ali b. Abi Talib (a)
As al-Irbili narrated, Abu Dhar chose Ali b. Abi Talib as the executor of his will and said: By Allah, Ali b. Abi Talib (a) is my executor. By Allah, although his right was usurped in caliphate, you will find peace and blessing with him. Ibn Abi l-Hadid said: Abu Dhar told Ibn Rafi' in al-Rabadha, fear only Allah, soon a conspiracy will happen, you should support Imam Ali (a). Abu Dhar also attended the funeral of Lady Fatima (a) which took place at midnight.
In the time of the second caliph, 'Umar, he refused to accept a total ban on narrating/writing hadith. In response, Abu Dhar said: By Allah, if they threaten me by a sword to stop narrating hadiths from Prophet Muhammad (s), I would rather die than stop narrating Prophet's hadith. That is why Abu Dhar and other narrators of hadith were imprisoned.
Exile to Syria
As Ibn Abi l-Hadid said, Abu Dhar was exiled to Syria because he criticized Uthman, the third caliph, for giving the treasury money to Marwan b. Hakam, Zayd b. Thabit and others as a gift. He said: "Abu Dhar was shouting in streets and criticized Uthman. As a result, Uthman exiled him to Syria."
However, Abu Dhar made some social groups and informed people about the characteristics and virtues of Prophet Muhammad (s) and Ahl al-Bayt (a). On the other hand, Mu'awiya prohibited people from meeting Abu Dhar and reported his activities to Uthman. Therefore, he was returned to Medina.
Exile to al-Rabadha
Abu Dar met Uthman in Medina, where he refused his gift and criticized his actions again. Then 'Uthman lost his patience with him and exiled him to al-Rabadha in the worst possible condition, which is mentioned in many historical books.
Abu Dhar passed away in Dhu l-Hijja 32/653, in al-Rabadha, in the time of Uthman's caliphate. As Ibn Kathir has said, "no one was with him except his wife and his child when he passed away." Al-Zirikli said, "when he passed away his family did not have anything to enshroud his body".. Mihran b. Maymun said: "All the property of Abu Dhar valued only about two dirhams [an old currency in Arab countries less valuable than dinar]".
It is said when his wife "Umm Dhar" was crying she said to Abu Dhar: "You die in the desert, and I have nothing to enshroud your body. He replied: Do not cry and be happy, for Prophet Muhammad (s) said one of you would die in the desert, and a group of Muslims will bury him. The others have passed away in cities, and I am the only one left, and I die in the desert; Prophet Muhammad (s) was talking about me.
When he died Abd Allah b. Mas'ud and a number of Ansar, Hujr b. Adi, Malik al-Ashtar and several young Muslims were passing the desert, and coincidentally they noticed Abu Dhar. Therefore, they enshrouded his body and buried him and Abd Allah b. Mas'ud performed Funeral prayer on his body.
According to all sources, Abu Dhar is buried in al-Rabadha. Al-Harbi, in al-Manasik, said there was a mosque in al-Rabadha under the name of Abu Dhar; and it is said that the grave of Abu Dhar was in that mosque.
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