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Muslim b. 'Abd Allah al-Mujashi'i

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Muslim b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Mujāshiʿī (Arabic: مسلم بن عبد الله المُجاشِعي, martyred in 36/656) was a martyr in the Battle of Jamal. He is said to be from the Mujashiʿ or ʿAbd al-Qays tribe.

On one account, he had a conversation with Hudhayfa b. Yaman, a companion of the Prophet (s), as a result of which he was inclined to advocate Imam 'Ali (a). Before the Battle of Jamal, he called people of the camel to the Quran and to obey Imam 'Ali (a).

Biography

Muslim the son ʿAbd Allah[1] was a member of Imam ʿAli’s army in the Battle of Jamal. He is titled ʿIjli[2] and Mujashiʿi.[3] Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari, a Sunni historiographer, maintains that he was from Mujashiʿ,[4] a Tamim tribe,[5] but al-Shaykh al-Mufid (d. 413/1022) believes that he was from ʿAbd al-Qays Tribe.[6] Abu Mikhnaf, a historiographer of the second/eighth century, is quoted as saying that Muslim’s mother, Umm Dharih al-ʿAbdiyya, was a Shia poet.[7]

Muslim lived in 36/657 in Madain (al-Madaʾin),[8] and in the Battle of Jamal (in 36 years) he was still in his young years.[9]

Advocacy of Imam ʿAli (a)

Hasan b. Muhammad al-Daylami, a Shia scholar of hadiths, has quoted Muslim b. ʿAbd Allah as saying that he inclined to Imam ʿAli (a) as result of his conversations with Hudhayfa b. Yaman (d. 37/658), the ruler of Mada'in.[10]

According to al-Daylami in his Irshad al-qulub, when Imam ʿAli (a) took over the caliphate, he kept Hudhayfa b. Yaman, a companion of the Prophet (s), as the ruler of Madain. Hudhayfa gave a sermon in Madain, in which he declared Imam ʿAli (a) as the true Amir al-Mu'minin. Muslim found this remark sarcastic; that is, it seemed to him to imply that the three caliphs preceding Imam ʿAli (a), were not true Amir al-Muʾminin. At the request of Muslim, Hudhayfa recounted some of the past events to him. For example, he told him that Imam ʿAli (a) was titled “Amir al-Muʾminin” since the time of the Prophet (s) and indeed by Gabriel, while the three caliphs were given this title just by people.[11] Moreover, he told him about al-Sahifa al-Mal'una (the Cursed Scroll), the story of frightening the Prophet’s camel in the mountain pass Harsha, the Event of Ghadir, and the usurpation of the caliphate by Abu Bakr and 'Umar b. Khattab.[12]

Martyrdom in the Battle of Jamal

Muslim b. ʿAbd Allah was martyred in the Battle of Jamal on Jumada I 36/565.[13]

Before the beginning of the battle, Imam 'Ali (a) wanted to give an ultimatum to the enemy. Thus, he asked his companions whether any of them would go before the enemy with a Quran in his hand. Muslim b. ʿAbd Allah expressed his readiness and stood before the army of the enemy.[14] He told them that Imam ʿAli (a) called to the Quran, and asked them to obey God and act upon the Book of God.[15]

According to Ibn Athir, a Sunni historiographer in the seventh/thirteenth century, they first cut his right hand, after which he took the Quran with his left hand. When they cut his left hand, he pushed the Quran against his chest by his amputated arms.[16] Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310/922) says that Muslim was martyred by being shot with an arrow,[17] and al-Shaykh al-Mufid believes that he was martyred at the command of Aisha and an attack be spear-holders.[18] Imam 'Ali (a) had prognosticated the way he would be martyred,[19] commenting that God had filled his heart with light and faith.[20]

Muslim’s mother was present when he was present.[21] In an elegy, she referred to Aisha as the mother of her son’s murderers.[22]

Notes

  1. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 3, p. 524.
  2. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 3, p. 524; Ziriklī, Al-Aʿlām, vol. 7, p. 222.
  3. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 3, p. 155.
  4. Khwārizmī, Al-Manāqib, vol. 1, p. 187.
  5. Ibn Athīr, Al-Lubāb fī tahdhīb al-ʾansāb, vol. 1, p. 223.
  6. Mufīd, Al-Jumal, p. 340.
  7. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 457; Ḥasūn, Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt, p. 184.
  8. Daylamī, Irshād al-qulūb, vol. 2, p. 323-324.
  9. Mufīd, Al-Jumal, p. 340.
  10. Daylamī, Irshād al-qulūb, vol. 2, p. 341.
  11. Daylamī, Irshād al-qulūb, vol. 2, p. 323-324.
  12. Daylamī, Irshād al-qulūb, vol. 2, p. 328-333.
  13. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 2, p. 361; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 3, p. 524; Ibn Athīr, Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 3, p. 246.
  14. Ibn Athīr, Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 3, p. 246; Mufīd, Al-Jumal, p. 340.
  15. Daylamī, Irshād al-qulūb, vol. 2, p. 343.
  16. Ibn Athīr, Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 3, p. 246; Ibn Jawzī, Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ, vol. 1, p. 378.
  17. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 2, p. 361; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 3, p. 524; Ibn Athīr, Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 3, p. 246.
  18. Mufīd, Al-Jumal, p. 340.
  19. Ibn Athīr, Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 3, p. 246.
  20. Daylamī, Irshād al-qulūb, vol. 2, p. 342.
  21. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 3, p. 524.
  22. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 3, p. 524.

References

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  • Daylamī, Ḥasan b. Abī l-Ḥasan al-. Irshād al-qulūb. Qom: al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1412 AH.
  • Ḥasūn, Muḥammad. Mashkūr, Umm ʿAlī. Aʿlām al-nisāʾ al-muʾmināt. Tehran: Uswa, 1421 AH.
  • Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1385 AH.
  • Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Al-Lubāb fī tahdhīb al-ʾansāb. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1414 AH.
  • Ibn Aʿtham, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Al-Futūḥ. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwāʾ, 1411 AH.
  • Ibn Jawzī, Yūsuf b. Qazāwughlī. Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ. Qom: al-Majmaʿ al-ʿĀlamī li Ahl al-Bayt, 1426 AH.
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Edited by Ḥāshim Rasūlī. Qom: Nashr-i ʿAllāma, 1379 Sh.
  • Ibn Kathīr al-Dimashqī, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. Al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1407AH-1986.
  • Khwārizmī, Muwaffaq b. Aḥmad al-. Al-Manāqib. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1411 AH.
  • Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Murūj al-dhahab wa maʿadin al-jawhar. Edited by Asʿad Dāghir. Qom: Dār al-Hijra, 1409 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Jumal wa al-nuṣra li sayyid al-ʿitra fī ḥarb al-Baṣra. Qom: Kungira-yi Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1413 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1403 AH.
  • Ziriklī, Khayr al-Dīn al-. Al-Aʿlām qāmus tarājum li ashhur al-rijāl wa al-nisāʾ min al-ʿarab wa al-mustaʿribīn wa al-mustashriqīn. Eighth edition. Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm li-l-Malāyyīn, 1989.