Shia Islam

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Shia Islam is one of the two major sects within Islam. Along with monotheism, prophethood, and resurrection, Imamate is a principle held by Shi'a Islam, distinguishing it from Sunni Islam. In Shi'a Islam, an Imam is believed to be appointed by God and introduced to the people through the Prophet (s). According to this denomination, the Prophet (s) chose Imam Ali (a) as his immediate successor upon God's command.

All Shi'a sects, except Zaydiyya, believe in the infallibility of the Imams, just like the Prophet (s). They also believe in the occultation of the last Imam, the promised Mahdi (a), who they believe will one day reappear and lead an uprising to establish justice in the world.

In the Shi'a denomination, similar to the Sunni denomination, the sources for deducing Sharia rulings include the Quran, the Tradition, reason, and consensus. However, Shi'as consider the Tradition to encompass not only the practices and words of the Prophet (s), but also those of their Imams (a), making them additional sources for deriving Sharia rulings.

Some of the theological beliefs held by Shi'as include the following: the rational goodness and badness of actions, the transcendence of divine attributes, the concept of "amr bayn al-amrayn", the rejection of the righteousness of all Companions of the Prophet (s), the practice of taqiyya (precautionary dissimulation), the act of tawassul, and the belief in intercession.

Today, the Shi'a denomination consists of three main sects: Imamiyya, Ismailism, and Zaydism. The majority of Shi'as are Imami or Twelver Shi'as. They believe in the Imamate of the Twelve Imams (a), with the twelfth Imam, al-Mahdi, the promised savior (a).

Ismailis believe in the Imamate of the Imams embraced by Imamiyya up to their sixth Imam, Imam al-Sadiq (a). After him, they believe in the Imamate of Isma'il, the son of Imam al-Sadiq (a), and then Muhammad, the son of Isma'il, whom they consider to be the promised Mahdi. On the other hand, Zaydiyya does not limit the number of Imams. They believe that any individual from the progeny of Lady Fatima (a) who meets criteria such as knowledge, asceticism, courage, and generosity can be recognized as an Imam.

Shi'a governments in the history of the Islamic world include Al Idris, Alids of Tabaristan, the Buyid dynasty, Zaydis in Yemen, Fatimids, Ismailis, Sarbadars in Sabzevar, the Safavid dynasty, and the Islamic Republic of Iran.

According to the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, in 2009, Shi'as accounted for approximately 10 to 13 percent of the global Muslim population. Based on these statistics, the Shi'a population ranged between 154 and 200 million. The majority of Shi'as reside in countries such as Iran, Pakistan, India, and Iraq.

Definition

The term "Shi'a" refers to the followers of Imam Ali (a) who believe that the Prophet (s) explicitly appointed him as his immediate successor.[1] According to al-Shaykh al-Mufid, the term "al-Shi'a" with the definite article (al-) specifically applies to the followers of Imam Ali (a) who believe in his immediate authority and Imamate after the Prophet (s).[2] On the other hand, Sunni Muslims believe that the Prophet (s) did not explicitly designate a successor, and since Muslims unanimously pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, he is considered the Prophet's (s) successor.[3]

According to Rasul Ja'farian, a contemporary researcher on Shi'a history, for several centuries after the emergence of Islam, the term "Shi'a" was used to refer to those who expressed love and devotion to Ahl al-Bayt (a), the Prophet's Household (a), as well as those who prioritized Imam Ali (a) over 'Uthman, the third caliph.[4] To differentiate them from the first group, who were known as doctrinal Shi'as, these individuals were referred to as love-based Shia's (lovers of Ahl al-Bayt).[5]

The term "Shi'a" literally means follower, supporter, or faction.[6]

Origins

Regarding the origins of Shiism, there are various perspectives. Scholars point to different periods, such as during the lifetime of the Prophet (s) before 11/632, following the Event of Saqifa in 11/632, following Uthman's murder in 35/656, and following the Arbitration Event in 37/658.[7] Certain Shi'a scholars believe that Shi'as have existed since the lifetime of the Prophet (s) because some of his companions were supportive of Ali (a).[8] They refer to hadiths[9] and historical reports[10] that mention the existence of "Shi'as" of Ali (a) during the Prophet's (s) lifetime.[11] After the Prophet's (s) demise, these individuals protested against the decision made at the Council of Saqifa, which resulted in the election of Abu Bakr as caliph, refusing to pledge allegiance to him.[12] According to Nashi al-Akbar in the book Masa'il al-imama, doctrinal Shiism has existed since the time of Imam Ali (a).[13]

Theory of Imamate

The shared belief among all Shi'a sects is believed to be their position on Imamate.[14] Imamate has a pivotal place within Shi'a theological issues.[15] Imamate refers to the leadership of the Islamic community and the succession of the Prophet (s) in both worldly and spiritual matters. For Shi'as, the Imam is the highest authority for interpreting religious rulings after the Prophet (s).[16] In Shi'a hadiths, the status of the Imam is portrayed as so significant that if someone dies without knowing the Imam of their time, they are considered to have died as disbelievers.[17]

"He who dies without having known the Imam of his time has died in a state of ignorance [i.e., as a disbeliever]."

Taftāzānī, Sharḥ al-maqāṣid, vol. 5, p. 239.

Necessity of Explicit Text on the Imam

Shi'as believe that Imamate is a fundamental principle of religious belief and is indeed a divine position. According to their belief, it is not left to the discretion of the people or the community to choose the Imam. Instead, it is the responsibility of the prophets to designate their successors.[18] Therefore, Shi'a theologians (excluding Zaydis) emphasize the necessity of the Imam being "appointed" by the Prophet (s) or his preceding Imam (a).[19] They believe that the only way to ascertain the identity of the Imam is through explicit evidence (nass),[20] which refers to a clear statement or action that directly indicates the Imam's position.[21]

The Shia's argument is based on the belief that the Imam must possess infallibility, and only God has knowledge of who possesses this attribute.[22] Infallibility is considered an internal quality, and external actions of individuals cannot serve as an indication of their infallibility.[23] Therefore, it is necessary for God to appoint and introduce the Imam to the people through the prophet.[24]

Shi'a books of theology present both textual and intellectual arguments to support the necessity of the existence of an Imam in society.[25] Shi'as invoke textual evidence, such as the Verse of Ulu l-Amr and the Hadith of "Man Mat".[26] Additionally, one of their intellectual or philosophical arguments is based on the principle of lutf This argument suggests that the Imam's presence encourages more people to obey God and avoid sins. According to the principle of grace, it is incumbent upon God to take all actions that facilitate such a state of affairs. Therefore, it is believed to be necessary for God to appoint an Imam.[27]

Infallibility of the Imam

Shi'as firmly believe in the infallibility of the Imams, considering it a fundamental requirement for Imamate.[28] They support this belief with textual and intellectual arguments,[29] such as the Verse of Ulu l-Amr,[30] the Verse of Abraham's (a) trial,[31] and the Hadith of al-Thaqalayn.[32]

Among Shi'as, Zaydis hold a different belief regarding the infallibility of the Imams. According to their perspective, only the Companions of the Cloak, namely the Prophet (s), Ali (a), Fatima (a), al-Hasan (a), and al-Husayn (a), are considered infallible.[33] They do not attribute infallibility to the other Imams, regarding them as ordinary individuals.[34]

Problem of the Prophet's Succession

Shi'as believe that the Prophet (s) publicly declared Imam Ali (a) as his successor, affirming that Imamate is the exclusive right of Ali (a) and his descendants.[35] However, Zaydi Shia's have a different perspective. They accept the Imamate of Abu Bakr and 'Umar, though they believe that Imam Ali (a) was more deserving of this position. According to their belief, the Muslim community made a mistake in electing Abu Bakr and 'Umar as Imams. Nonetheless, since Imam Ali (a) gave his consent to their Imamate, it is deemed necessary to acknowledge their Imamate as well.[36]

Shi'a theologians present Quranic verses and hadiths as evidence to support the belief in the immediate succession of Imam Ali (a) after the Prophet (s). These include references to the Verse of Wilaya, Hadith al-Ghadir, and Hadith al-Manzila.[37]

Shi'a Sects

The major Shi'a sects include Imamiyya, Zaydiyya, Isma'iliyya, Ghaliyya, Kaysaniyya, and to some extent, Waqifiyya.[38] Among these sects, there are various branches, such as the Zaydiyya, which has up to ten branches,[39] and Kaysaniyya, which allegedly has four branches.[40] It is important to note that while there have been numerous Shi'a sects throughout history, many of them no longer exist.[41] Today, the three main Shi'a sects with active followers are Imamiyya, Zaydism, and Ismailism.[42]

Kaysaniyya were the followers of Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya. They believed that after Imam Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), and Imam al-Husayn (a), Muhamamd al-Hanafiyya, another son of Imam Ali (a), was the Imam. They maintained that Muhammad Hanafiyya was the promised Mahdi, who resides in Radwa Mount.[43]

Waqifiyya refers to those who believe that Imam al-Kazim (a) was the last Imam and ceased to recognize any subsequent Imams.[44] Ghaliyya, on the other hand, were extremist groups who held exaggerated beliefs about the status of Imams of the Shi'a. These beliefs included notions of divinity, the idea that the Imams were uncreated, or equating the Imams with God.[45] It is important to note that Imams of the Shi'a (a) actively opposed and fought against any form of Ghuluww (exaggeration) regarding their status.[46]

Shi'a Denominations
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shiism
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kaysaniyya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
HarbiyyaBayaniyyaRawandiyyaHashimiyyaKarbiyya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zaydiyya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nawusiyya
 
 
 
 
 
JarudiyyaButriyyaJaririyyaNa'imiyya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fatahiyya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Isma'iliyya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NizariyyaDruzeMubarakiyyaMusta'liyaQarmatiansSevener
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tayyibiyya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Waqifiyya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sulaymaniyya
(Bohra)
 
Dawudiyya
(Bohra)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imamiyya

Twelver Shiism

Twelver (Ithna'ashari) Shiism is the predominant Shi'a sect,[47] encompassing the largest number of Shi'a followers. According to the beliefs of Imamiyya, after the Prophet (s), there were twelve Imams (a), starting with Imam Ali (a) and concluding with Imam al-Mahdi (a),[48] who is currently alive and in a state of occultation but is expected to reappear in the future to establish justice on Earth.[49]

Raj'a is a distinctive belief within Twelver Shiism.[50] According to this doctrine, after the reappearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a), certain individuals from the deceased will be resurrected. This resurrection includes both righteous figures from the Shi'a community and the adversaries of Ahl al-Bayt (a), who will face retribution for their actions in this world.[51]

Prominent Imami theologians, include al-Shaykh al-Mufid (336/948 or 338/950 – 413/1022), al-Shaykh al-Tusi (385/995 – 460/1067), Khwaja Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (597/1201 – 672/1274), and 'Allama al-Hilli (648/1250 – 726/1325).[52] Notable Imami jurists include al-Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, 'Allama al-Hilli, al-Shahid al-Awwal, al-Shahid al-Thani, Kashif al-Ghita', Mirza al-Qummi, and al-Shaykh Murtada al-Ansari.[53]

The majority of Shi'as in Iran, comprising approximately 90 percent of the country's population, adhere to Twelver Shi'a Islam.[54]

Zaydism

The Zaydi denomination is attributed to Zayd, the son of Imam al-Sajjad (a).[55] Its followers believe that the designation of Imamate by the Prophet (s) was limited to Imam Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), and Imam al-Husayn (a).[56] According to their beliefs, apart from these three Imams (a), any descendant of Lady Fatimah (a) who rises up and meets the conditions of knowledge, asceticism, courage, and generosity can be considered an Imam.[57]

Zaydis hold differing views on the Imamate of Abu Bakr and 'Umar. Some of them accept their Imamate, while others reject it. Present-day Zaydis in Yemen tend to align with the belief in the Imamate of Abu Bakr and 'Umar.[58]

Jarudiyya, Salihiyya, and Sulaymaniyya are among the prominent Zaydi sects.[59] According to al-Shahristani, the author of al-Milal wa l-nihal (Sects and creeds), the majority of Zaydis align with Mu'tazilite theology, while in matters of jurisprudence, they are influenced by the Hanafi school, which is one of the four major Sunni schools of jurisprudence.[60]

According to the book Atlas-i Shi'a, Zaydis account for approximately 35 to 40 percent of Yemen's population, which is estimated to be around twenty million.[61]

Ismailism

Ismailism is a Shi'a sect that acknowledges the Imams from Imam Ali (a) up to Imam al-Sadiq (a). However, they diverge from the Twelvers by recognizing Isma'il, the eldest son of Imam al-Sadiq (a), as the rightful Imam, rejecting the Imamate of Imam al-Kazim (a) and the subsequent Twelver Imams (a).[62] Ismailis believe in the concept of seven periods, where each period begins with a "Speaker" (Natiq) who introduces a new Sharia law. Following the Natiq, seven Imams will serve during that period.[63]

A distinctive characteristic of Ismailism is its emphasis on the esoteric meanings (batin) of religious texts. Ismailis interpret Quranic verses, hadiths, and Islamic teachings and rulings in a manner that goes beyond their superficial apparent meanings (zahir). They believe that Quranic verses and hadiths possess both a "zahir" and a "batin" aspect. The Imams possess knowledge of the batin, and the purpose of the Imamate is to convey the inner, hidden aspects of religion.[64]

Al-Qadi al-Nu'man is widely regarded as the most esteemed Ismaili jurists, and his book Da'a'im al-Islam is considered the main jurisprudential source within Ismailism.[65] Notable Ismaili intellectuals include Abu Hatam al-Razi, Nasir Khusraw, and a collective known as the "Ikhwan al-Safa'" (Brethren of Purity).[66] The Ismailis have made philosophical contributions through works such as Rasa'il Ikhwan al-Safa' and A'lam al-nubuwwa.[67]

Presently, Ismailis are divided into two main groups: Aqakhaniyya and Bohra. These groups trace their origins back to the two branches of Egyptian Fatimids: Nizari and Musta'li Ismailism.[68] The Aqakhani Ismailis are estimated to have a population of approximately one million, with a significant presence in Asian countries like India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran.[69] On the other hand, the Bohra Ismailis are estimated to number around 500 thousand, with 80 percent of their population residing in India.[70]

Major Theological Beliefs

Shi'as share fundamental principles of religious belief with other Muslims, such as monotheism, prophethood, and resurrection. However, they hold distinct beliefs that set them apart. Alongside matters of Imamate and Mahdism, Shi'as believe in the rational goodness and badness of actions, the transcendence (tanzih) of divine attributes, the concept of "amr bayn al-amrayn", the rejection of the righteousness of all Companions of the Prophet (s), the practice of taqiyya (precautionary dissimulation), the act of tawassul, and the belief in intercession.

Shi'a scholars, similar to Mu'tazilite scholars, hold the belief that the goodness and badness of actions can be understood rationally.[71] According to this view, actions possess inherent goodness or badness, regardless of whether God deems them as such.[72] This stands in contrast to the Ash'arite perspective, which maintains that the goodness and badness of actions are solely determined by religious decree.[73] In other words, there is no inherent goodness or badness in actions; rather, actions are deemed good if God commands doing them, and are deemed bad if God forbids doing them.[74]

The concept of "transcendence" (tanzih) of divine attributes stands in contrast to two other perspectives: negation of these attributes and anthropomorphism. The negation view suggests that no attributes should be attributed to God, while anthropomorphism likens God's attributes to those of His creatures.[75] In Shi'a belief, certain positive attributes that apply to creatures can be ascribed to God, but He should not be compared to His creatures in how He possesses these attributes.[76] For example, just as humans possess knowledge, power, and life, it is acknowledged that God also possesses these attributes, but God's knowledge, power, and life are not akin to human knowledge, power, and life.[77]

According to the concept of "a theory between the two theories," humans are neither absolutely free, as believed by the Mu'tazilites, nor completely determined in their actions, as asserted by the People of Hadith.[78] Rather, humans possess free will in their actions, but this will and power are not independent and are ultimately dependent on God's will.[79] It is worth noting that Zaydi Shi'as share a similar view to that of the Mu'tazilites.[80]

Shi'a theologians, in contrast to Sunni theologians,[81] do not universally believe in the righteousness of all Companions of the Prophet (s).[82] They argue that mere companionship with the Prophet (s) is not sufficient evidence of righteousness.[83]

With the exception of Zaydis,[84] all other Shi'a sects endorse the practice of taqiyya (precautionary dissimulation). This implies that they believe that when expressing one's beliefs could potentially result in harm from opponents, it is permissible to conceal those beliefs or even express something contrary to what one truly believes.[85]

While tawassul is acknowledged in all Islamic sects, it holds a significant position within Shi'a Islam.[86] Unlike certain Sunni Muslims, such as Wahhabism,[87] Shi'as consider it commendable to seek the intercession of the Prophet (s) and Imams (a) as a means of praying to God or drawing closer to Him.[88] Tawassul is closely linked to the concept of intercession.[89] According to al-Shaykh al-Mufid, the doctrine of intercession entails that on the Day of Resurrection, the Prophet (s) and Imams (a) have the ability to intercede on behalf of sinners, and due to their intercession, God will grant salvation to many wrongdoers.[90]

Jurisprudence

All Shi'as agree that the Qur'an and the Prophetic Tradition are the two primary sources for deriving Sharia rulings.[91] However, they diverge in how they use these sources, as well as other sources of jurisprudence.

The majority of Shi'as, including Imamis and Zaydis, hold a similar view to Sunni Muslims, believing that reason and consensus, in addition to the Qur'an and the Prophetic Tradition, are valid sources of jurisprudence.[92] However, Isma'ilis have a distinct perspective. According to Ismailism, it is not permissible to follow any mujtahid. Instead, individuals are required to derive Sharia rulings directly from the Qur'an, the Prophetic Tradition, and the teachings of the Imams.[93]

In terms of the Prophetic Tradition, Zaydis hold the belief that only the words and practices of the Prophet (s) are authoritative. They refer to Sunni sources of hadith, such as al-Sihah al-Sitta, to obtain the Traditions of the Prophet (s).[94] However, Twelvers and Isma'ilis have a different perspective. They consider the hadiths passed down from their Imams as valid sources of jurisprudence alongside the Prophetic Tradition.[95]

Furthermore, Zaydis share the belief with Sunni Muslims that analogy and istihsan (juristic discretion) are valid sources for deriving jurisprudential rulings.[96] On the other hand, Imami and Isma'ili Shi'as do not consider these methods as valid sources.[97] However, in certain cases where there are disagreements between Twelver Shi'as and Sunni Muslims, Zaydis have adopted the Shi'a fatwas. For example, unlike Sunni Muslims, they believe that the phrase "hayy 'ala khayr al-'amal" is part of the adhan and consider it impermissible to substitute it with "al-salat khayr min al-nawm" (prayer is better than sleep).[98]

Regarding temporary marriage, which is a point of contention between Twelver Shias and Sunni Muslims, both Isma'ilis and Zaydis align with the Sunni perspective.[99] In contrast to Twelvers who allow temporary marriage, Isma'ilis and Zaydis believe it to be forbidden.[100]

Population and Geographical Distribution

According to the statistics of the Pew Institute in 2014, more than 50% of the population of Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Iraq and Lebanon were Shi'as.[101]

In 2009, the "Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life" reported that the global population of Shi'as ranged from 154 to 200 million, accounting for approximately 10 to 13 percent of all Muslims.[102] However, there are differing opinions, with some suggesting that the Shi'a population exceeds 300 million, representing around 19 percent of Muslims worldwide.[103]

According to the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life report, a significant majority of Shi'as, ranging from 68 to 80 percent, reside in four countries: Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and India.[104] Based on Pew's 2009 statistics, approximately 66 to 70 million Shi'as (37 to 40 percent of the global Shi'a population) live in Iran, 17 to 26 million (10-15 percent) in Pakistan, 16 to 24 million (9-14 percent) in India, 19 to 22 million (11-12 percent) in Iraq, and 7 to 11 million (2-6 percent) in Turkey.[105]

Shi'as form the majority population in countries such as Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, and Iraq.[106] Additionally, Shi'a communities can be found in various regions including the Middle East, Northern Africa, Asia and Oceania, as well as in the United States, Canada,[107] China,[108] and many other countries around the world.

Governments

Throughout the history of the Islamic world, there have been Shi'a governments such as Al Idris, Alavids of Tabaristan, the Buyid dynasty, Zaydis in Yemen, Fatimids, Isma'ilis in Alamut, Sarbadars in Sabzevar, Safavid dynasty, and the current Islamic Republic of Iran.

The Al Idris government, which emerged in Morocco and parts of Algeria,[109] is recognized as the first Shi'a-led government.[110] It was founded in 172-788-9 by Idris, the grandson of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a), and endured for two centuries.[111] The Alavid government was Zaydi in nature.[112] Additionally, Zaydis also held rule over Yemen from 284/897 to 1382/1963.[113] The governments of the Fatimids and Isma'ilis in Alamut were Isma'ili in affiliation.[114] As for the Buyid dynasty, there are varying perspectives, with some considering them Zaydi, while others view them as Twelvers. Some argue that they initially followed Zaydi Shiism and later converted to Imami Shiism.[115]

Sultan Mohammad-e Khodabande, also known as Öljaitü (reign: 703/1304 - 716/1316), was a ruler of the Ilkhanate dynasty. He declared Twelver Shiism as the official religion of his government in Iran. However, due to pressures from the Sunni Islamic structure of his administration, he later revoked the declaration and reinstated Sunni Islam as the official religion.[116]

The Sarbadar government in Sabzevar is believed to be a Shi'a government.[117] However, the exact denominational affiliation of the leaders and rulers of the Sarbadars is not fully known, according to Rasoul Jafarian. It is evident, though, that their religious leaders were Sufis with Shi'a inclinations.[118] The last ruler of the Sarbadars, Khoja 'Ali Mu'ayyad,[119] declared Imami Shiism as the official religion of his government.[120]

The Safavid government, founded in Iran by Shah Ismail I in 907/1051, declared Twelver Shiism as the official religion.[121] This government played a significant role in spreading Twelver Shiism throughout Iran, eventually establishing the country as a predominantly Shi'a nation.[122]

In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the principles of Shiism and Twelver Shi'a jurisprudence serve as the foundations of governance.[123]

Further Readings

The book Shi'a in Islam by 'Allama Tabataba'i serves as an introduction to Shiism, specifically intended for non-Muslim readers. Originally written in Persian, this book provides a concise overview of essential information about Shiism using accessible language. It has been translated into various languages, including English.

See also

Gallery

Notes

  1. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 131.
  2. Mufīd, Awāʾil al-maqālāt, p. 35.
  3. See: Ījī, Sharḥ al-Mawāqif, vol. 8, p. 354.
  4. See: Jaʿfariyān, Tārīkh-i Tashayyuʿ dar Irān az āghāz tā ṭulūʿ-i dawlat-i Ṣafawī, p. 22, 27.
  5. Jaʿfariyān, Tārīkh-i Tashayyuʿ dar Irān az āghāz tā ṭulūʿ-i dawlat-i Ṣafawī, p. 28.
  6. Farāhīdī, al-ʿAyn, under the word "Shayʿ and Shawʿ".
  7. Muḥarramī, Tārīkh-i Tashayyuʿ, p. 43,44; Fayyāḍ, Piydāyish wa gustarish-i Tashayyuʿ, p. 49-53.
  8. See: Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Shīʿa dar Islām, vol. 1, p. 29, Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, p. 18-20.
  9. Suyūṭī, al-Durr al-manthūr, vol. 6, p. 379.
  10. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 42, p. 332.
  11. Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i Islāmī, p. 20.
  12. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Shīʿa dar Islām, p. 32-33.
  13. See: Nāshī Akbar, Masāʾil al-imāma, p. 22-23.
  14. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 131.
  15. Anṣarī, Imāmat (Imāmat nazd-i Imāmīyya), p. 137; Sulṭānī, Tārīkh wa ʿaqāʾid Zaydiyya, p. 256, 257.
  16. Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 213.
  17. See: Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 21.
  18. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 131.
  19. Amīr Khānī, Naẓarīyya-yi naṣṣ az dīdgāh-i mutakallimān-i Imāmī, p. 29; Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 105; Mufīd, Awāʾil al-maqālāt, p. 40, 41.
  20. Amīr Khānī, Naẓarīyya-yi naṣṣ az dīdgāh-i mutakallimān-i Imāmī, p. 13.
  21. Amīr Khānī, Naẓarīyya-yi naṣṣ az dīdgāh-i mutakallimān-i Imāmī, p. 11; Mufīd, Awāʾil al-maqālāt, p. 38; Rabbānī Gulpayigānī, Darāmadī bar ʿilm-i Kalām, p. 181.
  22. See: Ṭūsī, al-Iqtiṣād, p. 312; Rabbānī Gulpayigānī, Darāmadī bar ʿilm-i Kalām, p. 181.
  23. Ṭūsī, al-Iqtiṣād, p. 312.
  24. See: Ṭūsī, al-Iqtiṣād, p. 312; Rabbānī Gulpayigānī, Darāmadī bar ʿilm-i Kalām, p. 181.
  25. See: Mufīd, al-Ifṣāḥ, p. 28, 29; Sulṭānī, Tārīkh wa ʿaqāʾid Zaydiyya, p. 260-263.
  26. Mufīd, al-Ifṣāḥ, p. 28.
  27. Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 491.
  28. See: Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 492; Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 105.
  29. See: Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 492-494; Subḥānī, al-Ilāhīyāt, p. 26-45.
  30. Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 493; Subḥānī, al-Ilāhīyāt, p. 125-130.
  31. Subḥānī, al-Ilāhīyāt, p. 117-125.
  32. Subḥānī, Aḍwāʾ ʿala ʿaqāʾid al-Shiʿa al-imāmiyya, p. 389-394.
  33. Sulṭānī, Tārīkh wa ʿaqāʾid Zaydiyya, p. 278.
  34. Sulṭānī, Tārīkh wa ʿaqāʾid Zaydiyya, p. 279.
  35. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 131; Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 497.
  36. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 141-143.
  37. Ḥillī, Kashf al-murād, p. 498-501; Mufīd, al-Ifṣāḥ, p. 32, 33, 134.
  38. See: Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 32.
  39. Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 95-104.
  40. See: Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 132-136.
  41. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 131-171.
  42. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Shīʿa dar Islām, p. 66.
  43. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Shīʿa dar Islām, p. 64.
  44. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Shīʿa dar Islām, p. 65.
  45. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 154.
  46. See: Ṭūsī, Ikhtiyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, vol. 1, p. 224; Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 2, p. 402.
  47. Jibraʾīlī, Siyr-i taṭawwur-i kalām-i Shīʿa, p. 46; Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Shīʿa dar Islām, p. 66.
  48. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Shīʿa dar Islām, p. 197-199.
  49. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Shīʿa dar Islām, p. 230, 231.
  50. Rabbānī Gulpayigānī, Darāmadī bi Shīʿa shināsī, p. 273; Ṭabāṭabāʾī, al-Mīzān, vol. 2, p. 106.
  51. Rabbānī Gulpayigānī, Darāmadī bi Shīʿa shināsī, p. 273.
  52. Kāshifī, Kalām-i Shīʿa, p. 52.
  53. Makārim Shīrāzī, Dāʾirat al-maʿārif-i fiqh-i muqārin, vol. 1, p. 260-264.
  54. Taqī zāda Dāwarī, Guzārishī az āmār-i jamʿīyyatī-yi shīʿayān-i kishwar-hā-yi jahān, p. 29.
  55. Heinz, Tashayyuʿ, p. 357.
  56. Sulṭānī, Tārīkh wa aqāʾid Zaydiyya, p. 287, 288; Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 86.
  57. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 137, 138.
  58. Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 95.
  59. Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 102.
  60. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 143.
  61. Jaʿfarīyān, Aṭlas-i Shīʿa, p. 466.
  62. Shahristānī, al-Milal wa al-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 170, 171.
  63. Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 165.
  64. Birinjkār, Āshnāʾī bā firaq wa madhāhib-i Islāmī, p. 95.
  65. Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 212.
  66. See: Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 153.
  67. Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 154, 161.
  68. Mashkūr, Farhang-i firaq-i Islāmī, p. 53.
  69. Daftarī, Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 701.
  70. Daftarī, Buhra, p. 813.
  71. Rabbānī Gulpayigānī, Darāmadī bar ʿilm-i Kalām, p. 296; Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 88.
  72. Muẓaffar, Uṣūl al-fiqh, vol. 2, p. 271.
  73. Muẓaffar, Uṣūl al-fiqh, vol. 2, p. 271.
  74. Muẓaffar, Uṣūl al-fiqh, vol. 2, p. 271.
  75. Rabbānī Gulpāyigānī, Darāmadī bar ʿilm-i Kalām, p. 172, 173.
  76. Rabbānī Gulpāyigānī, Darāmadī bar ʿilm-i Kalām, p. 172; Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Shīʿa dar Islām, p. 125, 126.
  77. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Shīʿa dar Islām, p. 125, 126.
  78. Rabbānī Gulpāyigānī, Darāmadī bar ʿilm-i Kalām, p. 277.
  79. Rabbānī Gulpāyigānī, Darāmadī bar ʿilm-i Kalām, p. 173.
  80. Sulṭānī, Tārīkh wa aqāʾid Zaydiyya, p. 216.
  81. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 1, p. 10, Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 1, p. 2.
  82. Shahīd al-Thānī, al-Riʿāya fī ʿilm al-dirāya, p. 343; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 1, p. 161; Rabbānī Gulpāyigānī, Darāmadī bar ʿilm-i Kalām, p. 209, 210.
  83. Shahīd al-Thānī, al-Riʿāya fī ʿilm al-dirāya, p. 343; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 1, p. 161.
  84. Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 87.
  85. Subḥānī, Taqīyya, p. 891, 892; Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 87.
  86. Pākatchī, "Tawassul, p. 362.
  87. Subḥānī, Tawassul, p. 541.
  88. Subḥānī, Tawassul, p. 540.
  89. Pākatchī, "Tawassul, p. 362.
  90. See: Mufīd, Awāʾil al-maqālāt, p. 47.
  91. See: Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 212; Muẓaffar, Uṣūl al-fiqh, vol. 1, p. 54, 64; Raḥmatī and Hāshimī, Zaydīyya, p. 98.
  92. See: Muẓaffar, Uṣūl al-fiqh, vol. 1, p. 51; Raḥmatī and Hāshimī, Zaydīyya, p. 98, 99.
  93. Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 214.
  94. Raḥmatī and Hāshimī, Zaydīyya, p. 98, 99.
  95. Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 212; Muẓaffar, Uṣūl al-fiqh, vol. 1, p. 51.
  96. Raḥmatī and Hāshimī, Zaydīyya, p. 98, 99.
  97. Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 213, 214.
  98. Raḥmatī and Hāshimī, Zaydīyya, p. 98.
  99. Daftarī, Tārīkh wa sunnat-hā-yi Ismāʿīlīyya, p. 214; Raḥmatī and Hāshimī, Zaydīyya, p. 98.
  100. Raḥmatī and Hāshimī, Zaydīyya, p. 98.
  101. FT_14.06.17_ShiaSunni.
  102. Mapping the Global Muslim Population.
  103. See: Anjuman-i din wa zindagī-yi ʿumūmī-yi Pew, Naqshih-yi jamʿīyyat-i musalmānān-i jahān, p. 11.
  104. Mapping the Global Muslim Population.
  105. Mapping the Global Muslim Population.
  106. Anjuman-i Din wa zindagī-yi ʿumūmī-yi Pew, Naqshih-yi jamʿīyyat-i musalmānān-i jahān, p. 20.
  107. Anjuman-i Din wa zindagī-yi ʿumūmī-yi Pew, Naqshih-yi jamʿīyyat-i musalmānān-i jahān, p. 19, 20.
  108. 中国的穆斯林都是来自哪些教派
  109. Sajjādī, Āl Idrīs, p. 561.
  110. Sajjādī, Āl Idrīs, p. 564.
  111. Sajjādī, Āl Idrīs, p. 561, 562.
  112. Chilūngar and Shāmurādī, Dawlat-hā-yi Shīʿī dar tārīkh, p. 51.
  113. Jaʿfarīyān, Rasūl. Aṭlas-i Shīʿa, p. 462.
  114. Chilūngar and Shāmurādī, Dawlat-hā-yi Shīʿī dar tārīkh, p. 155-157.
  115. Chilūngar and Shāmurādī, Dawlat-hā-yi Shīʿī dar tārīkh, p. 125-130.
  116. Jaʿfariyān, Tārīkh-i Tashayyuʿ dar Irān az āghāz tā ṭulūʿ-i dawlat-i Ṣafawī, p. 694.
  117. Jaʿfariyān, Tārīkh-i Tashayyuʿ dar Irān az āghāz tā ṭulūʿ-i dawlat-i Ṣafawī, p. 776.
  118. Jaʿfariyān, Tārīkh-i Tashayyuʿ dar Irān az āghāz tā ṭulūʿ-i dawlat-i Ṣafawī, p. 777-780.
  119. Jaʿfariyān, Tārīkh-i Tashayyuʿ dar Irān az āghāz tā ṭulūʿ-i dawlat-i Ṣafawī, p. 778.
  120. Jaʿfariyān, Tārīkh-i Tashayyuʿ dar Irān az āghāz tā ṭulūʿ-i dawlat-i Ṣafawī, p. 781.
  121. Heinz, Tashayyuʿ, p. 156, 157.
  122. Chilūngar and Shāmurādī, Dawlat-hā-yi Shīʿī dar tārīkh, p. 276, 277.
  123. Qāsimī and Karīmī, Jumhūrī Islāmī Irān, p. 765, 766.

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