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Khabbab b. Aratt

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Sahaba
Khabbab b. Aratt
Personal Information
Full Name Khabbab b. Aratt b. Jandalat b. Sa'd
Teknonym Abu 'Abd Allah
Lineage Banu Tamim or Banu Zuhra
Birth 17 years after 'Am al-Fil/587-8
Muhajir/Ansar Muhajir
Place(s) of Residence Mecca, Medina, Kufa
Death/Martyrdom 37/657
Cause of Death/Martyrdom Skin disease
Burial Place Najaf
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas Badr, Uhud, Khandaq
Migration to Medina
Known for The first Muslims, Sahaba

Khabbāb b. Aratt (Arabic: خَبّاب بن أرَتّ) was a companion to the Prophet (s) and Imam Ali (a) and one of the first Muslims. Polytheists of Mecca tortured him to make him renounce Islam; but he resisted. He immigrated from Mecca to Medina and participated in all the battles during the Prophet's time. Later, he settled in Kufa and passed away in 37/657. He has narrated 32 hadiths from the Prophet (s).

Birth

Based on most historical accounts that he passed away in 37/657 at the age of seventy three, he must have been born seventeen years after 'Am al-Fil i.e. twenty three years before Bi'tha (587-8). He earned his living by smithery.

Lineage

There are various opinions about his lineage. Most of those who believed that he was an Arab, said that he was from Banu Tamim tribe.[1] So his full name would be: Khabbab b. Aratt b. Jandalat b. Sa'd b. Khuzaymat b. Ka'b b. Sa'd b. Zayd Mant b. Tamim[2] (some mentioned Khuwaylid instead of Jandala[3]). Some believed that he was from Khuza'a tribe or was under protection treaty with Banu Zuhra.[4] Some said that Khabbab was originally from Kaskar a region in Iraq.[5]

His Father's Name

It has been said that Aratt acquired his name from his stutter in Arabic (in Arabic Ratta (root of Aratt) means to stutter).[6] Accordingly, some have said that he was from Nabateans or Aramean in Iraq or from Iranians who settled in Kaskar. Also, a narration from Imam Ali (a) that says he was the first Nabatean converted to Islam[7] supports the opinion that he was an Iraqi.

Teknonym

Khabbab's teknonym was Abu 'Abd Allah. It is said that the Prophet (s) named Kabbab's son 'Abd Allah[8] and called Khabba Abu 'Abd Allah. However, some believed that his teknonym was Abu Yahya or Abu Muhammad.[9] But, Abu Yahya was the teknonym for another companion of the Prophet (s) with the same name (Khabbab) who was the servant of 'Utbat b. Ghazwan and died in 19/640 during 'Umar's caliphate (13-23/ 634-644).

Descendants

Khabbab had several children.[10] His son, 'Abd Allah, was a commander in Imam Ali's army in the Battle of Nahrawan and was martyred by Khawarij.[11]

His descendants lived in Kufa until the time of Ibn Hisham (d. 218/833)[12]

Conversion to Islam

Khabbab b. Aratt was among the first people who believed in the Prophet (s) and embraced Islam. Many historians said that he was the sixth person to accept Islam[13] before the arrival of the Prophet (s) at the house of Arqam b. Abi l-Arqam.[14] Others said that he was the 10th, 11th or 20th Muslim.[15] He is the first or among the few first Muslims who manifested their religion publicly for the first time.[16]

Before and after Hijra, he was counted among the poor Muslims. He says that when he embraced Islam he did not have even a dirham (penny).[17] Muslims who had manifested their religion publicly and did not have protectors such as their tribes, were tortured brutally. Khabbab was one of these poor Muslims who were tortured to renounce Islam. He was about 23 to 25 year old at that time. It has been narrated in al-Tafsir li l-Imam al-'Askari (a) (exegesis attributed to Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari (a)) that a miracle happened to him, while he was chained up and tortured by polytheists.[18]

Propagating Islam

In early years of emergence of Islam, he was involved in propagational activities for spreading Islam. He taught the Qur'an to Fatima bt. Khattab -'Umar's sister, who later caused 'Umar to embrace Islam[19] by reciting the Qur'an- and her husband, Sa'id b. Zayd. Khabbab accompanied the Prophet (s)[20] and liked him very much.[21] He participated in all the battles during the Prophet's life including Badr, Uhud and Khandaq.[22] According to a hadith, the Prophet (s) gave him the responsibility for keeping and distributing the spoils of Badr.[23]

Narration of the Prophet's Quotes

He narrated thirty two hadiths from the Prophet (s).[24] Shi'a and Sunni jurists have used his narrations for proving some jurisprudential laws.[25] He also narrated that Ali (a) was the first person who embraced Islam while he had reached puberty.[26]

Some people who narrated hadiths from him are:

In Medina and Kufa

Khabbab immigrated to Medina[28] volitionally. He was poor person in Medina as he was in Mecca. It is said that he remembered God all the time. After immigration, he lives in Kulthum b. Hadm's house and Sa'd b. 'Ubada's for a while.[29] The Prophet (s) established the Bond of Brotherhood between him and Tamim (male servant of Khirash b. Simma) or Jabr b. 'Atik.[30]

Later, Khabbab moved to Kufa.[31] It is said that he was among the first people who built their houses from brick.[32] Also, it is said that 'Uthman granted him a land (named Isbiniya/Isbina or according to another account Sa'nabi) in Iraq, as a fief.[33] Nevertheless, Khabbab was worried at his deathbed that he might have received the reward of his good deeds and efforts in this world so that he would not receive any in the Hereafter.[34]

Khabbab was a smith before Hijra and was a master at making sword to the extent that he was held up as a perfect example in this field.[35] According to this fact and the point that Muslim needed weapons, due to various wars happened in early years of Islam, he must have been doing this job for a living.

Demise

Khabbab suffered a bad and chronic, skin disease. It was during this time that he was counted among "Bakka'in" (who cries very much) and "Nawwahin" (who mourns very much).[36]

According to some sources, he was absent in the Battle of Siffin due to his sickness and in 37/657 when Imam Ali (a) left Kufa for the Battle of Siffin, he passed away and Imam (a) saw his grave on his way back from the battle.[37]

But according to Muhammad b. 'Amr al-Waqidi, he passed away in 37/657 after that Imam (a) had returned to Kufa from Siffin. Imam performed funeral prayer on his body and buried him.[38] He passed away at the age of 73.[39]

Khabbab was the first person who was buried out of Kufa near the city gate.[40] It was a common custom to bury the dead in or next to the door of their houses. Khabbab was the first person who made a will to be buried out of Kufa[41] (currently Najaf).

Notes

  1. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 54; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 98.
  2. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 164.
  3. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 54; Haythamī, Majmaʿ al-zawāʾid, vol. 9, p. 299.
  4. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 98.
  5. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 198-199; Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 1, p. 67.
  6. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 199.
  7. Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 1, p. 312.
  8. Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Tārīkh-i Khalīfa, vol. 1,p. 570.
  9. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 98; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 18, p. 171.
  10. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 100.
  11. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 2, p. 369.
  12. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīrat al-Nabī, vol. 2, p. 503.
  13. Ibn Abī Shayba, al-Muṣannaf, vol. 8, p. 43; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 55; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 98.
  14. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 164-165.
  15. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 23; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 1, p. 288.
  16. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 98; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 2, p. 221.
  17. Abū Nuʿaym, Ḥilyat al-awlīyāʾ, vol. 1, p. 143-144; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 18, p. 171; Ibn al-Jawzī, Zād al-masīr fī ilm al-tafsīr, under Qur'an 8:52.
  18. al-Tafsīr al-Imām al-Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī (a), p. 623-624.
  19. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīrat al-Nabī, p. 229-231.
  20. Nasā'ī, Sunan al-Nasā'ī, vol. 3, p. 217; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, vol. 5, p. 108-109.
  21. Abū Nuʿaym, Ḥilyat al-awlīyāʾ, vol. 1, p. 143.
  22. Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, vol. 5, p. 108; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 166; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 18, p. 171; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 55.
  23. Ibn Ḥabīb, al-Munammaq, p. 244; Shāmī, Subul al-hudā, vol. 4, p. 62.
  24. Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, vol. 5, p. 108-112.
  25. Ṭūsī, al-Khilāf, vol. 3, p. 515; vol. 5, p. 481; Nawawī, al-Majmūʿ, vol. 1, p. 279; vol. 3, p. 60, 422-423, 427; Ḥillī, Tadhkirat al-fuqahāʾ, vol. 1, p. 120; vol. 3, p. 186-187; Ḥillī, Muntahā al-maṭlab, vol. 4, p. 351-352.
  26. Mufīd, al-Fuṣūl al-mukhtara, p. 274; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 13, p. 234.
  27. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 164; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 98-99.
  28. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 121.
  29. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 165; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 200-201.
  30. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 166; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 99.
  31. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 14.
  32. Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muntaẓam fī tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 221.
  33. Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, under the word "Isbiniya" and "Sa'nabi".
  34. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 166-167.
  35. Zabīdī, Tāj al-ʿarūs, under the word "Khabab".
  36. Abū Nuʿaym, Ḥilyat al-awlīyā, vol. 1, p. 143; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 99.
  37. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 61; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 56; bn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 2, p. 221.
  38. Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Tārīkh-i Khalīfa, p. 144; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 202; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 167; vol. 6, p. 14;
  39. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 167; vol. 6, p. 14; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 100.
  40. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 167; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 18, p. 172.
  41. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 530; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p.61; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 56; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 100.

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