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Sawda bt. Zam'a

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Sawda bt. Zam'a
Wife of the Prophet (s)
Place of Birth Mecca
Places of Residence Mecca, Medina
Burial Place Baqi' cemetery, Medina
Era Early Islam
Known for Wife of the Prophet (s)
Activities Migration to Abyssinia and Medina
امهات المؤمنین.png
Name Date of Marriage
Khadija (27 BH/595)
Sawda (before Hijra/before 622)
Aisha (1,2, or 4/622, 623, or 625)
Hafsa (3/624)
Zaynab (bt. Khuzayma) (3/624)
Umm Salama (4/625)
Zaynab (bt. Jahsh) (5/626)
Juwayriyya (5 or 6/626 or 627)
Umm Habiba (6 or 7/627 or 628)
Mariya (7/628)
Safiyya (7/628)
Maymuna (7/628)

Sawda bt. Zamʿa b. Qays (Arabic:سودة بنت زمعة بن قیس) was one of the Prophet's wives who married the Prophet (s) after Khadija (a) and before 'Aisha. She was present in the Battle of Khaybar and has narrated some hadiths form the Prophet (s).

Biography

Her mother was Shumus bt. Qays b. Zayd b. 'Uday b. al-Najjar al-Ansari. After that she embraced Islam and pledged allegiance to the Prophet (s), her husband, Sakran b. 'Umar -who was her cousin- converted to Islam as well. They were among those who immigrated to Abyssinia. After the death of Sakran, the Prophet (s) married Sawda. Her marriage to him was before the marriage of Aisha.

Sawda along with some other Muslims emigrated to Medina and joined the Prophet (s) in the middle of the way.[1]

Ibn Sa'd writes: "The Apostle of God gave Sawda eighty wasaqs (wasaq is a unit for measuring weight; around 180 kg) of date and twenty wasaqs of barley in [the Conquest of] Khaybar."[2] This report shows that she was present in the Conquest of Khaybar.

After the demise of Zaynab, the Prophet's daughter, Sawda with the help of some other women washed her body for Ghusl al-Mayyit.[3]

Characteristics

Ibn Sa'd narrated form Ibn Sirin: "The Apostle of God (s) took all his wives to Hajjat al-Wida' (farewell pilgrimage) and they performed hajj after him. But Sawda did not go to Hajj. Citing the Qur'an 33:33[4] she said, "My hajj is not leaving this house" and she did not come out of the house that the Prophet (s) had decided for her.[5]

Narration

Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, Ahmad b. Hanbal, Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, Ibn Manda, Abu Nu'aym, Ibn Athir, and others have counted her among the Companions and narrators of the Prophet (s).[6] Muqaddas Ardabili and Mirza Astar Abadi mentioned her name among the narrators.[7] Mamaqani says, "I regard her as hasan (a type of narrators) and rely on her narrations."[8]

Narrators from Sawda

Sawda has narrated hadiths from the Prophet (s)[9] and 'Abd Allah b. al-'Abbas and Yahya b. 'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Rahman have narrated hadiths from her. Al-Tabarani has narrated 13 hadiths from Sawda, some of which are similar to each other.[10] Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, and al-Nasa'i have narrated her hadiths in their books.[11]

Sawda and Imam Ali (a)

During the rule of Imam Ali (a) the wives of the Prophet (s) divided into two groups. Apparently she was on the side of Aisha and so supported her.[12]

Demise

Ibn 'Abd al-Barr and Ibn Athir write: "Sawda passed away in the late of caliphate of 'Umar [late of 22 or early of 23/late 643] in Medina."[13] Ibn Sa'd narrates from 'Abd Allah b. Muslim: "Sawda passed away in Shawwal, 54/September, 674, during the Caliphate of Mu'awiya, in Medina and was buried in al-Baqi'." Ibn Hajar says, "Ibn Abi Khuthayma said that she passed away during the caliphate of 'Umar." Al-Waqidi and al-Zarkili believed that she passed away in 54.[14]

Notes

  1. Balādhurī, Jumal min ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 414.
  2. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 55-56 quoting from Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Muḥaddithat Shīʿa, p. 250.
  3. Balādhurī, Jumal min ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 400.
  4. ...وَقَرنَ في بُيوتِكُنَّ: Stay in your houses...
  5. Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Muḥaddithat Shīʿa, p. 250.
  6. Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Muḥaddithat Shīʿa, p. 250, quoting from Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 32; Ibn Hanbal, al-Jamai' fi fi al-ilal wa al-ma'rifat al-rijal, p. 244; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1867; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 5, p. 484; Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 3, p. 80.
  7. Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Muḥaddithat Shīʿa, p. 250 quoting from Ardabīlī, Jāmiʿ al-ruwāt, vol. 2,p. 458; Istarabādī, Manhaj al-maqāl, p. 400.
  8. Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Muḥaddithat Shīʿa, p. 250, quoting from Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 3, p. 80.
  9. Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Muḥaddithat Shīʿa, p. 251, quoting from Ibn Ḥanbal, al-Jāmiʿ fī al-ʿilal wa al-maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 244.
  10. Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Muḥaddithat Shīʿa, p. 251, quoting from Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 24, p. 33-37.
  11. Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Muḥaddithat Shīʿa, p. 251, quoting from Ibn Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 12, p. 426.
  12. Ibn Abī Āṣim, Āḥād wa al-mathānī, vol. 5, p. 388; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 23, p. 50.
  13. Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Muḥaddithat Shīʿa, p. 249 quoting from Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1867; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 5, p. 485.
  14. Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Muḥaddithat Shīʿa, p. 249 quoting from Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 57; Ibn Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 12, p. 427.

References

  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Jumal min ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Suhayl Zakār & Riyāḍ al-Ziriklī. 1st edition. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1417 AH.
  • Ibn Abī Āṣim, Aḥmad b. ʿAmr. Āḥād wa al-mathānī. Edited by Fayṣal Aḥmad al-Jawābira. Riyadh: Dār al-Dirāya, 1991 CE.
  • Gharawī Nāʾīnī, Nahla. Muḥaddithat Shīʿa. Tehran: Tarbīyat-i Mudarris University; Markaz-i Nashr-i Āthār-i ʿIlmī, 1386 Sh.
  • Ṭabarānī, Sulaymān b. Aḥmad. Al-Muʿjam al-kabīr. Edited by Ḥamdī ʿAbd al-Majīd Salafī. Cairo: Maktabat Ibn Taymiyya, [n.d].