Al-Shaʿbānīyya Sermon (Arabic: الخطبة الشعبانية) is a sermon delivered by the Prophet (s) in the last Friday of the month of Sha'ban as a preparation for entering the month of Ramadan. In addition to expressing the greatness of this month, the Prophet (s) encouraged Muslims to observe more precious point such as remembrance of the Hereafter, helping the poor and the needy, guarding their eyes, ears and tongue, reciting Qur'an and salawat (salutation to the Prophet (s) and his progeny) more.
At the end of the sermon, in answer to Imam 'Ali's (a) question, the Prophet (s) regarded abstaining from sins as the best deed in this month. He also foretold that Imam 'Ali (a) will be martyred in this month and talked about his virtues for people.
This sermon has been narrated from Imam al-Rida (a) through a chain of transmission through the previous Imams (a) which leads to Imam Ali (a). The oldest source containing this sermon is Fada'il Amir al-Mu'minin (a) by Ibn 'Uqda al-Kufi. The most important sources that have narrated this sermon are:
- 'Uyun akhbar al-Rida (a)
- Al-Amali (written by al-Shaykh al-Saduq)
- Iqba al-a'mal by al-Sayyid b. Tawus.
Later books have narrated the hadith from the above sources.
The Prophet (s) started this sermon by mentioning the importance and greatness of the month of Ramadan and continued by mentioning:
- The reward of fasting in this month.
- The reward of some of the acts of worship during this month.
- Infinite mercy of God, especially in this month.
- Opening the gates of divine mercy.
- The devils are chained up.
- Observing the moral of fasting.
- Remembering the hunger and thirst of the Day of Resurrection.
- Caring about the poor, orphans, the elderly, and children.
- The reward of silat al-arham (visiting relatives and having good ties with them).
- Offering iftar (the meal by which Muslims break their fast at the end of the day) to other Muslims even if it is as small as a half of date or a sip of water.
- Guarding eyes, ears and tongue.
- Paying especial attention to prayer (salat), repentance, supplication and asking God for forgiveness (istighfar).
- The reward of recitation of Qur'an in this month.
- The reward of sending salutation to the Prophet (s) and his pure progeny.
- Abstinence from bothering people.
- Being good mannered and behaving politely.
Toward the end of the sermon, Imam 'Ali (a) asks about the best deed in this month. Answering that, the Prophet (s) regarded abstinence from sins as the best deed in this month and while weeping, he says that 'Ali (a) will be martyred in this month; then he continues talking about his virtues and considers whoever denies Imam 'Ali's (a) Imamate (leadership) as the one who denies his prophethood.
|For the full text, see text:al-Sha'baniyya Sermon.|
- Ibn ʿUqda, Faḍāʾil Amīr al-Muʾminīn, 1424 AH, p. 133. Ṣadūq, ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, 1378 AH, vol. 1, p. 295.
- Ibn ʿUqda, Faḍāʾil Amīr al-Muʾminīn, 1424 AH, p. 133-135.
- Ṣadūq, ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, 1378 AH, vol. 1, p. 295-297.
- Ṣadūq, al-Amālī, 1376 Sh, p. 93-96.
- Sayyid b. Ṭāwūs, Iqbāl al-aʿmāl, 1409 AH, vol. 1, p. 2-3.
- Ṣadūq, ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, 1378 AH, vol. 1, p. 297.
- Ibn ʿUqda, Aḥmad b. Muḥammd. Faḍāʾil Amīr al-Muʾminīn. Qom, Dalīl-i Mā, 1424 AH.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā. Tehran, Nashr-i Jahān, 1378 AH.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Amālī. Tehran, Nashr-i Kitābchī, 1376 Sh.
- Sayyid b. Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā. Iqbāl al-aʿmāl. Qom, Daftar-i Tablīqāt-i Islāmī, 1409 AH.