Priority: a, Quality: b
From wikishia

Istighfār (Arabic:الإستغفار) is to ask God to forgive one's sins. It does not merely consist in the recitation of sentences such as "اللّهمَ إغفِرلی" (lit. God! forgive me!, allāhumm-a ighfirlī), rather it is a true feeling of return to God and repentance for one's wrongdoings with a determination not to commit them again. Istighfar is not restricted to ordinary, fallible people; even the prophets asked for divine forgiveness. The Prophet Muhammad (s) was commissioned by God to ask for divine forgiveness for himself and for other believers, as an intercession for divine mercy.

The concept of asking for divine forgiveness has repeatedly appeared in the Qur'an in different forms. Istighfar does not have to occur at a special time or place and it is usually accepted by God. However, according to the Qur'an and hadiths, there are times and places in which istighfar will be more likely accepted by God.

Literal and Technical Meanings

The word "istighfar" literally means to ask for forgiveness.[1] It is from the Arabic root, "gh-f-r", (غ-ف-ر) which originally means to cover.[2] Technically, it means to verbally or practically ask God to forgive one's sins in order to be immune to the pernicious effects of the sins and divine punishment.[3] Some scholars have taken some occurrences of the word "istighfar" in the Qur'an to refer to believing,[4] converting to Islam,[5] or saying one's prayers.[6] These are instances of the practical sort of istighfar.

Istighfar is either a verbal expression, such as "استغفر اللّه" (I ask for God's forgiveness, astaghfirullāh), or a deed, such as doing something that leads one to be forgiven by God. The verbal istighfar is discussed in jurisprudence in issues such as tahara, prayer, fasting, hajj, commerce, zihar and expiation.

Use of Istighfar in The Qur'an

The concept of asking for divine forgiveness has appeared in the Qur'an 68 times: 43 of these are different forms of "istighfar" (in the form of "istif'al"), 17 in the form "ighfir" (the imperative form, meaning forgive), three in the form of "yaghfir" (He forgives), two in the form of "taghfir" (you forgive), and one in the form of "maghfira" (forgiveness).[7] In two verses of the Qur'an, the divine order for forgiveness has appeared with the word "hitta" (Arabic: حطة): God issued an order for the Israelites to be forgiven.[8]

"and ask forgiveness of your lord and then repent to him. He will give you enjoyment till a stated term and will give of his bounty to those of grace. But if you turn away, I fear for you the punishment of a mighty day".
"he who does evil or wrongs himself and then asks forgiveness of Allah will find that Allah is the forgiver, the most merciful".

There are many other verses of the Qur'an in which the concept appears.

In Hadiths

There is a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) according to which, "if a person frequently asks for divine forgiveness, the list of his or her deeds will rise (on the Day of Resurrection) while shining."[9]

And Zurara quotes Imam al-Sadiq (a) as saying that "when a person commits a sin, he or she has a deadline until the end of night; if he or she asks for divine forgiveness, the sin will not be recorded [in the list of his or her deeds]."[10]

Necessity and Importance

The necessity of istighfar is obvious from the invitation to istighfar in many Qur'anic verses[11] and reproaching those who ignore it in some others (such as Qur'an 5:74). Ordinary people need to ask God for forgiveness constantly, because they are prone to sin and error. On the other hand, no one can do justice to divine rights; everyone meets divine commands in terms appropriate to the extent of their knowledge. Therefore, even true pious people are even ashamed of their worships and hence need to ask for divine forgiveness.[12]

The importance of istighfar can be explained in different respects:

  • The Prophet Muhammad (s) and other prophets (a) recommended istighfar; all people are commanded to ask for divine forgiveness, as implied by eight Qur'anic verses. Nearly 30 verses of the Qur'an talk about prophets themselves asking for divine forgiveness and the Prophet (s) himself was ordered in five Qur'anic verses to ask for divine forgiveness.
  • The angels ask for the forgiveness of the believers[13] and people on the Earth.[14]
  • Asking for divine forgiveness is considered to be an attribute of the pious people.[15]

Istighfar: Recommended, Obligatory, and Forbidden

Although istighfar is recommended in itself, it is under certain circumstances obligatory or forbidden. Thus there are three jurisprudential rulings for istighfar:

  • Recommended istighfar: since istighfar counts as the best worship, it is particularly recommended in the following cases:[16]
  1. between the two prostrations of the prayer;[17]
  2. after Al-Tasbihat al-Arba'a;[18]
  3. in qunut, especially the qunut of the watr prayer;[19]
  4. during the dawn (sahar);[20]
  5. for a dead person in his or her funeral, burial and visiting his or her grave;[21]
  6. in rain prayers;[22]
  7. in the Ramadan;[23]
  8. for not doing some traditions, such as istighfar for hurting oneself while mourning as a expiation.[24]
  • Obligatory istighfar: one case in which istighfar is obligatory, is hajj; when the muhrim engages in a quarrel or commits a vice less than three times.[25] Another case is when one is required to give expiation (the emancipation of a slave, fasting for two months or providing food or clothes for 60 people in need) but one cannot provide any of them.[26] It is said that if one cannot provide the expiation for zihar, then istighfar will be obligatory, though there is a dispute over the issue.[27] It is a matter of controversy whether istighfar is obligatory in saying prayers for a dead person[28] as well as istighfar for a person about whom one has committed ghiba (or backbiting).[29]
  • Forbidden istighfar: according to the Qur'an, it is forbidden to ask for forgiveness for pagans and polytheists[30] as well as hypocrites.[31]


A person was repeating the sentence استغفر الله (I ask God to forgive me) before Imam 'Ali (a). The Imam (a) told him there are six conditions to be met in order for an istighfar to be valid, and that it is only then that the recitation of such a sentence could help:

  1. Repentance over one's past deeds.
  2. Determination for never repeating that misdeed.
  3. Observing people's rights.
  4. Doing all one's obligations that one had ignored.
  5. One should, out of remorse, lose the flesh he grew in sins until he grows new flesh on his bones.
  6. One's body should suffer from worships, just as it had enjoyed the sins.[32]

Here are some other manners of istighfar:

  • Istighfar during the dawn (sahar).
  • Istighfar at Thursday night.
  • Confession to one's mistakes.
  • Testimony of faith and submission to God.
  • Attention to God's lordship.
  • Attention to God's absolute wilaya.
  • Appeal to the prophets.
  • Mentioning divine attributes during istighfar.
  • Remembering God.


Here some factors that prepare one for istighfar:

  • Awareness of divine forgiveness.
  • Hope for divine mercy.
  • Considering that God accepts one's repentance.
  • Considering divine wisdom.
  • Considering God as the creator.
  • Considering divine grace.
  • Considering divine greatness.
  • Considering that everything goes back to God.
  • Considering divine power to forgive.
  • Considering divine tortures.
  • Keeping one's promises.

Acceptance by God

God will definitely accept one's istighfar, because:

  • Some Qur'anic verses explicitly state that God accepts istighfar (such as Qur'an 11:11 and 61; and Qur'an 40:60).
  • There are many verses of the Qur'an that order people to ask for divine forgiveness,[33] so it is improbable that God does not accept one's istighfar.
  • Many divine attributes, such as the Forgiver and the Pardoner, imply that God accepts people's requests for His forgiveness.

The Best Times for Istighfar

Istighfar is not restricted to any particular time, place or condition. But there are special moments or places in which istighfar will definitely be accepted. For example, according to the Qur'an, the best time for istighfar is the dawn (sahar). According to Qur'anic exegetes, the verse "soon will I ask my Lord for forgiveness for you: for He is indeed oft-forgiving, most merciful"[34]

refers to the fact that the Prophet Joseph (a) (Yūsuf) will ask for divine forgiveness in the dawn.


According to the Qur'an and hadiths, istighfar has many constructive, worthwhile effects, such as the reformation of the community, divine blessings, and immunity to this-worldly and afterlife divine punishment.[35]

Preventing Divine Punishment

According to the Qur'an 8:33, "Allah was not going to send them a penalty whilst you were amongst them; nor was he going to send it whilst they could ask for pardon".[36]

Imam 'Ali (a) said: "there were two things on Earth that provided immunity to divine punishments: the presence of the Prophet (s) that is not available anymore, but the other one, that is istighfar, is always available; so appeal to it." He then recited the above Qur'anic verses.[37]

Forgiving One's Sins

According to the Qur'an 71:10, the Prophet Noah (a) tells his people to ask for divine forgiveness, and then the verse goes on "He is the forgiver (ghaffar)". The divine attribute, Ghaffar (forgiver), as well as others such as Rahim (Merciful) and Wadud (loving), imply that God forgives the sins and gives His mercy to people.[38] According to a hadith, istighfar cleans the effects of the sins from one's soul.[39]

Increase of Livelihood and Children

According to the Qur'an 71:11-12,[40] istighfar has as an effect the abundance of rains, removes poverty and helps increase one's livelihood. According to hadiths, istighfar leads to the increase of one's children.

Welfare and Longevity

Istighfar helps one achieve a good life and wealth, welfare, security, and respect.[41] According to the Qur'an, "ask forgiveness of your Lord, then turn to Him; He will provide you with a goodly provision to an appointed term and bestow His grace on every one endowed with grace". The 'good provision' in the verse has been interpreted as wealth and good material life. However, some people interpreted it as longevity, satisfaction, and turning away from people to God.[42] According to a report, by an appeal to the above Qur'anic verse, Hasan al-Basri advised people who suffer from drought, poverty, and lack of children to ask for divine forgiveness.[43]

Tawassul in Istighfar

  • According to some Qur'anic verses, it is permissible, and even recommended, to resort to people who are close to God in asking for God's forgiveness (e.g. Qur'an 5:35[44]).
  • In some Qur'anic verses, resort to others, such as the Prophet (s), in asking for divine forgiveness is mentioned (e.g. Qur'an 4:64[45]).
  • In other verses of the Qur'an, God orders the Prophet (s) to ask God to forgive him and his people (e.g. Qur'an 47:19[46]).
  • Some verses forbid the Prophet (s) and believers to ask God to forgive polytheists; this implies that it is permissible to ask Him to forgive believers (e.g. Qur'an 9:113 [51]).
  • Some verses (Qur'an 12:97-98 [52]) imply that it is permissible to resort to others (such as prophets or Imams) to ask for divine forgiveness, because when the Prophet Jacob's (a) children asked him to ask God to forgive them, he promised them to ask Him so in the future.

Istighfar of The Prophets (a) and Other Infallibles (a)

Most of the relevant Qur'anic verses are concerned with the istighfar of ordinary people. However, in one case the Qur'an refers to the istighfar of "ribbiyyun", by which are meant "people who do not engage themselves with anything other than God".[53] And some verses talk about the istighfar of the prophets and angels.

Since prophets (a) are Infallible, their istighfar does not mean asking God to forgive their sins.[54] According to Shiites and many jurists from Maliki, Hanafi, and Shafi'i schools, all prophets are infallible and they never commit even minor sins, since all people are commissioned to follow their lead, which is incompatible with their being fallible.[55] Moreover, the Qur'an has described prophets as "mukhlasun".[56] According to the Qur'an 38:82-83, there is no way for the Satan to tempt and deceive "mukhlasun" (dedicated servants). Thus istighfar in the case of prophets (a) should be explained in different ways.

Istighfar of Prophets (a)

  • Istighfar in the case of prophets is a way of teaching people how to ask for divine forgiveness.
  • It might mean that they ask God to forgive them because of not doing what is recommended of them to do (rather than what is obliged for them), that is, something that had better do or not do.[57]
  • It might well mean asking God to forgive the sins of their people.[58]
  • Prophets might practice istighfar in order not to commit sins, rather than asking for the forgiveness of something they did.[59]
  • The prophets' missions had effects that seemed wrong to many people. Thus they asked God to cover those effects from people. For example, people of Mecca thought that the Prophet (s) was an aggressive person who overlooked the traditions. However, after the Hudaybiyya peace treaty and the conquest of Mecca, they learned the truth. And about the Prophet Moses (a), the Qur'an 26:14 says: "they hold a sin against me", although it was not a sin for Prophet Moses (a) to kill the man from Copts, since it counted as a case of helping an oppressed person. However, it was considered by people as a sin, and thus Moses (a) asked God to forgive him, in the sense of covering the deed from people so that they no longer consider him as sinful.[60] Likewise, according to the Qur'an 7:129, "they [that is, Israelites] replied: 'we were hurt before you came to us, and after you came to us.'" Thus they blamed Prophet Moses (a) for their troubles.
  • For their natural lives, the prophets had to spend part of their time meeting their bodily needs, such as eating and drinking, and thus they were disconnected from the divine world during such engagements. So they asked God to forgive their having to engage in such activities.[61]
  • Istighfar by prophets means that they only care for God, rather than their spiritual rankings, since such things prevent them from seeing God.[62]
  • Since prophets always ascend to higher levels of spirituality, whenever they reach a higher level, they ask God to forgive their being in a lower level.[63]

These interpretations of istighfar by prophets also apply to that by Imams (a) and other Infallibles (a), since they also asked for God's forgiveness, such as Imam 'Ali (a) in the Supplication of Kumayl and Imam al-Sajjad (a) in the Supplication of Abu Hamza Thumali.[64]

The Viewpoint of Sunni Scholars

According to some Sunni scholars, the fact that prophets (a) asked for divine forgiveness makes it probable that they committed some major sins, and so they asked God to turn their major sins into minor sins or asked Him to make them immune from insistence on minor sins.[65] Some other Sunni scholars reject that they commit any major sins, but they think that they asked God to forgive some minor sins they committed before or after their prophecy.[66] Others maintain that prophets asked God to forgive their unintentionally committed sins.[67]

Istighfar by Angels

According to the Qur'an 42:5 [68] and Qur'an 40:7,[69] angels ask God to forgive the sins of people on Earth. Both verses talk about angels asking God to forgive others, rather than themselves.

Prohibition of Istighfar for Polytheists

According to the Qur'an 9:113, the Prophet (s) and other believers are prohibited from asking God to forgive polytheists and pagans. This is because such a request is pointless,[70] since God will never forgive them. Some scholars hold that the prohibition is because if believers think that God may forgive polytheists, they would think that their faith gives them no advantage to them over polytheists, since they both might be forgiven by God.[71] Moreover, istighfar is an expression of love and attachment to polytheists, which is forbidden by God.[72]

Ibrahim's (a) Istighfar for Azar

After prohibiting istighfar for polytheists, the Qur'an refers to why the Prophet Ibrahim (a) asked God to forgive Azar; according to the verse Qur'an 9:114,[73] he asked God for Azar's forgiveness only when he still hoped that Azar would believe in God; thus he promised him to ask for his forgiveness. However, when he realized that Azar was an enemy of God, he dissociated himself from him.[74]

Ineffectiveness of istighfar for hypocrites

According to the Qur'an, istighfar for hypocrites (munafiqun) is ineffective, since they do not believe in God and the Prophet (s) and there is no way for them to be guided to the right path.[75]


  1. Ḥimyarī, Shams al-ʿulūm, vol. 8, p. 4982.
  2. Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, vol. 5, p. 26; Ibn Athīr, al-Nihāya, vol. 3, p. 373.
  3. Ibn ʿĀshūr, al-Taḥrīr wa l-tanwīr, vol. 3, p. 223; Rāghib, Mufradāt alfāẓ al-Qurʾān, p. 609.
  4. Zamakhsharī, al-Kashshāf, vol. 2, p. 402.
  5. Fakhr al-Rāzī, al-Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 15, p. 158.
  6. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 2, p. 714.
  7. ʿAbd al-Bāqī, al-Muʿjam al-mufahras, p. 634.
  8. Qurʾān, 2:58; 7:161.
  9. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 504.
  10. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 437.
  11. ʿAbd al-Bāqī, al-Muʿjam al-mufahras, p. 634.
  12. Nahj al-balāgha, sermon 193.
  13. Qurʾān, 40:7.
  14. Qurʾān, 42:5.
  15. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 2, p. 463.
  16. Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 7, p. 180.
  17. Yazdī, al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā, vol. 1, p. 683.
  18. Yazdī, al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā, vol. 1, p. 658.
  19. Yazdī, al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā, vol. 1, p. 699.
  20. Najafī, Jawāḥir al-kalām, vol. 7, p. 33.
  21. Najafī, Jawāḥir al-kalām, vol. 4, p. 289, 307, 323.
  22. Najafī, Jawāḥir al-kalām, vol. 12, p. 131.
  23. Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 10, p. 304.
  24. Najafī, Jawāḥir al-kalām, vol. 33, p. 193.
  25. Manāsik-i ḥajj, issue 372, 377.
  26. Najafī, Jawāḥir al-kalām, vol. 33, p. 295.
  27. Najafī, Jawāḥir al-kalām, vol. 33, p. 160-163.
  28. Najafī, Jawāḥir al-kalām, vol. 12, p. 34-47, 88.
  29. Najafī, Jawāḥir al-kalām, vol. 22, p. 72.
  30. Qurʾān, 9:113.
  31. Najafī, Jawāḥir al-kalām, vol. 12, p. 47-51.
  32. Nahj al-balāgha, Maxim 409.
  33. ʿAbd al-Bāqī, al-Muʿjam al-mufahras, p. 634.
  34. Qurʾān,12:98.
  35. Qurʾān, 71:10-12; 11:52; 7:96; 8:33.
  36. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 7, p. 154-155.
  37. Nahj al-balāgha, Maxim 88.
  38. Ṭabarī, Jamiʿ al-bayān, vol. 5, p. 371.
  39. Ibn Fahd al-Ḥillī, ʿUddat al-dāʿī, p. 265.
  40. He will send for you abundant rains from the sky (11), and aid you with wealth and sons, and provide you with gardens and provide you with streams.
  41. Fakhr al-Rāzī, al-Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 30, p. 137; Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 543.
  42. Qurṭubī, al-Jāmiʿ li-aḥkām al-Qurʾān, vol. 9, p. 4.
  43. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 543.
  44. O you who have faith! Be wary of Allah, and seek the means of recourse to Him, and wage jihad in His way, so that you may be felicitous.
  45. We did not send any apostle but to be obeyed by Allah’s leave. Had they, when they wronged themselves, come to you and pleaded to Allah for forgiveness, and the Apostle had pleaded for them [to Allah]for forgiveness, they would have surely found Allah all-clement, all-merciful
  46. Know that there is no god except Allah, and plead [to Allah] for forgiveness of your sin and for the faithful, men and women. Allah knows your itinerary and your [final] abode
  47. Our Lord! Forgive me and my parents, and all the faithful, on the day when the reckoning is held.’
  48. My Lord! Forgive me and my parents, and whoever enters my house in faith, and the faithful men and women, and do not increase the wrongdoers in anything but ruin.’
  49. He said, ‘My Lord, forgive me and my brother, and admit us into Your mercy, for You are the most merciful of the merciful.
  50. And [also for] those who came in after them, who say, ‘Our Lord, forgive us and our brethren who were our forerunners in the faith, and do not put any rancour in our hearts toward the faithful. Our Lord, You are indeed most kind and merciful.’
  51. The Prophet and the faithful may not plead for the forgiveness of the polytheists, even if they should be [their] relatives, after it has become clear to them that they will be the inmates of hell.
  52. They said, ‘Father! Plead [with Allah] for forgiveness of our sins! We have indeed been erring (97),He said, ‘I shall plead with my Lord to forgive you; indeed He is the All-forgiving, the All-merciful.’
  53. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 4, p. 41.
  54. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 6, p. 368; vol. 18, p. 254.
  55. Qurṭubī, al-Jāmiʿ li-aḥkām al-Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 211-212; Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 6, p. 367.
  56. Qurʾān, 38:46; 12:24; 19:51.
  57. Ālūsī, Rūḥ al-maʿānī, vol. 26, p. 84; Fakhr al-Rāzī, al-Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 28, p. 61; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 21, p. 452.
  58. Ālūsī, Rūḥ al-maʿānī, vol. 30, p. 463; Fakhr al-Rāzī, al-Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 32, p. 162.
  59. Ṣādiqī, al-Furqān, vol. 23, p. 406.
  60. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 22, p. 19-21; Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 18, p. 254.
  61. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 6, p. 366.
  62. Muwaḥḥidī, Tafsīr-i mawḍūʿī, vol. 11, p. 160.
  63. Ālūsī, Rūḥ al-maʿānī, vol. 26, p. 84; Fakhr al-Rāzī, al-Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 32, p. 162.
  64. Ṭūsī, Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid, p. 405, 584.
  65. Fakhr al-Rāzī, al-Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 32, p. 162.
  66. Iskandarānī, Kashf al-asrār, vol. 9, p. 191.
  67. Ālūsī, Rūḥ al-maʿānī, vol. 30, p. 463.
  68. The heavens are about to be rent apart from above them, while the angels celebrate the praise of their Lord and plead for forgiveness for those [faithful] who are on the earth. Indeed, Allah is the All-forgiving, the All-merciful!
  69. Those who bear the Throne, and those who are around it, celebrate the praise of their Lord and have faith in Him, and they plead for forgiveness for the faithful: ‘Our Lord! You embrace all things in mercy and knowledge. So forgive those who repent and follow Your way and save them from the punishment of hell.
  70. Qurʾān, 4:48, 116.
  71. Ibn ʿĀshūr, al-Taḥrīr wa l-tanwīr, vol. 10, p. 214.
  72. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 8, p. 155.
  73. Abraham’s pleading forgiveness for his father was only to fulfill a promise he had made him. So when it became manifest to him that he was an enemy of God, he repudiated him. Indeed Abraham was most plaintive and forbearing.
  74. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 11, p. 77, 88; vol. 11, p. 15.
  75. Qurʾān, 9:80.


  • Ālūsī, Maḥmūd b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Rūḥ al-maʿānī fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿaẓīm. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1426 AH.
  • ʿAbd al-Bāqī, Muḥammad fuʾād. Al-Muʿjam al-mufahras li-alfāẓ al-Qurʾān al-karīm. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, 1412 AH.
  • Fakhr al-Rāzī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Tafsīr al-kabīr. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, [n.d].
  • Ḥimyarī, Nashwān b. Saʿīd al-. Shams al-ʿulūm wa dawāʾ kalām al-ʿarab min al-kulūm. Edited by Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿAmrī. Damascus: Dār al-Fikr, 1420 AH.
  • Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tafsīl Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa ilā taḥṣīl masāʾil al-sharīʿa. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt li-Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth, 1409 AH.
  • Ibn ʿĀshūr, Muḥammad Ṭāhir. Al-Taḥrīr wa l-tanwīr. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Tārīkh, 1420 AH.
  • Ibn Athīr, Mubārak b. Muḥammad. Al-Nihāya fī gharīb al-ḥadīth wa l-athar. Qom: Ismāʿīlīyān, 1367 Sh.
  • Ibn Fahd al-Ḥillī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. ʿUddat al-dāʿī wa najāḥ al-sāʿī. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmī, 1407 AH.
  • Ibn Manẓūr, Muḥammad b. Mukarram. Lisān al-ʿArab. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 2000.
  • Iskandarānī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-. Kashf al-asrār al-nūrānīyya al-Qurʾānīyya. Edited by Aḥmad Farīd al-Mazīdī. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 2001.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Fourth edition. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, [n.d].
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1380 Sh.
  • Muwaḥḥidī, ʿAbd Allāh. Tafsīr-i mawḍūʿī-yi Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar-i Nashr-i Maʿārif, 1386 Sh.
  • Najafī, Muḥammad Ḥasan al-. Jawāḥir al-kalām. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1362 AH.
  • Qurṭubī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-. Al-Jāmiʿ li-aḥkām al-Qurʾān. Qom: Markaz-i Iṭilāʿāt wa Madārik-i Islāmī, 1387 AH.
  • Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad al-. Mufradāt alfāẓ al-Qurʾān. Damascus: Dār al-Qalam, 1416 AH.
  • Ṣādiqī Tihrānī, Muḥammad. Al-Furqān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Tehran: Farhang-i Islāmī, 1406 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Jamiʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, 1392 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Terhan: Bunyād-i ʿIlmī wa fikrī-yi ʿAllāma Ṭabāṭabāyī, 1370 Sh.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān. Tehran: Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid. Tehran: al-Maktaba al-Islāmīyya, [n.d].
  • Yazdī, Sayyid Muḥammad Kāẓim al-. Al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1409 AH.
  • Zamakhsharī, Maḥmūd b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Kashshāf ʿan ḥaqāyiq ghawāmiḍ al-tanzīl wa ʿuyūn al-aqāwīl fī wujūh al-taʾwīl. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿArabī, [n.d].