Ziyara Ashura' • Ziyara Warith • Amin Allah • al-Jami'a al-Kabira • Al Yasin
Takbir • Tahmid • Tahlil • Tasbih • Tasbih of Lady Fatima (a) • Salawat • al-Yunusiyya • Istighfar
al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya • Mafatih al-jinan • Misbah al-mutihajjid • Iqbal al-a'mal • Miftah al-falah
|Days and Months|
Laylat al-Qadr • 15th Sha'ban • 'Arafa • Ramadan • Rajab • Dhu l-Hijja
Ramaḍān (Arabic: رمضان) or Ramaḍān al-Mubārak (Arabic:رمضان المبارک) is the ninth month of the Hijri calendar. It is obligatory for every Muslim to fast all the days of this month. In the Qur'an, Ramadan is mentioned as a month in which Allah revealed the Quran to the Prophet (s). The Night of al-Qadr is in this month. Ramadan is the only month whose name is explicitly mentioned and praised in the Qur'an. Also, the 21st of this month marks the martyrdom anniversary of Imam Ali (a).
Among the most significant recommended practices in this month are reciting the Qur'an, keeping vigil on the three possible nights of al-Qadr, praying, repenting, giving Iftar meals to others and helping the needy.
Muslims greatly revere this month and consider it as their month of worship. The faithfuls prepare themselves spiritually in the previous months of Rajab and Sha'ban to begin this month prepared and ready to receive its blessings.
The name "Ramadan" is derived from the Arabic root-form "r-m-d" (Arabic: رَمَضَ), meaning "heating up" and "burning." Some philologists believe the reason behind choosing the word "Ramadan" for the month was the hot weather (at the time of the coinage) and is not related to the fasting because the month was named Ramadan before Islam.
In the Qur'an
|“||The month of Ramadan is one in which the Qur'an was sent down as guidance to humankind, with manifest proofs of direction and the Criterion. So let those of you who witness it fast [in] it.||”|
|— The Qur'an 2:185|
In hadiths, this month is referred to in different ways, such as in the following;
- "Ramadan" is one of the names of God.
- If people know the value of this month, they wish the whole year was Ramadan.
- It is the month of forgiveness, and if one's sins are not forgiven during this month, there is not much hope for their forgiveness for the rest of the year.
- The month of God.
- The month of divine mercy and forgiveness.
- The month of burning sins.
- The month during which the gates of the Heavens are open.
- The month of double rewards.
- The spring of the Qur'an.
- The month during which the gates of hell are closed.
- The month during which the gates of the Paradise open.
- The month in which devils are chained.
- Ramadan is the month that the great sound will be heard as a sign of the appearance of Imam al-Mahdi (a), according to some hadiths. Some hadiths reported the solar eclipse happening on the 13th or 14th of this month and a lunar eclipse on the 25th unexpectedly.
- It is the month in which the glorious Qur'an, the New Testament, the Torah, the Ten Commandments, and the Psalms have been sent down.
Beginning and the End
Like other months of the Hijri Calendar which begin by sighting the new moon, Ramadan begins and ends either when 30 days have passed from the beginning of the month or when the crescent of the new moon is seen. Moonsighting at the beginning of Ramadan is among recommended actions.
According to some hadiths, Ramadan is always 30 days, and it will never be less. Some early scholars believed in those hadiths. However, some other hadiths say that, like other months, Ramadan's length is changing, and it can be 29 or 30 days. Most Islamic authorities believe in these hadiths.
Fasting (or Sawm) is one of the most important acts of worship in Islam, which is defined as abstaining "completely" from foods, drinks, etc., before the break of the dawn till sunset, during the entire month of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic year. It's an obligatory task for every Muslim to fast all days of Ramadan, except for those with accepted excuses such as not being able to fast because of some illness, pregnancy, or being on a trip. Besides not eating and drinking, there are other necessities for true fastings, such as abstention from sins.
Some practices are usual and recommended for all days of Ramadan, and there are some practices for specific days.
The following are among the common practices this month:
- Reciting the Qur'an: best practice in the days and nights of Ramadan is reciting the Qur'an. The reward for reciting one verse of the Qur'an in this month equals the reward for reciting the whole Qur'an in other months. It is among Muslims' traditions to recite one Juz' of the Qur'an every day in this month.
- Reciting al-Sahar supplication
- Reciting Supplication of Abu Hamza al-Thumali at Sahar before dawn
- Giving Iftar meal to people; It is mentioned in hadiths that the reward for giving Iftar to people is more than the fasting of the giver.
- Reciting al-Iftitah supplication every night
- Reciting al-Hajj supplication every night
Specific Practices for Certain Days
There are some particular practices recommended for some days and nights of Ramadan, such as;
- Reciting Du'a no. 43 of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya at the first night of Ramadan,
- Performing ghusl (ritual bath) on the first day and first night of Ramadan,
- To perform a two-rak'as prayer on the 13th night of the month, the first night of Ayyam al-Bid (white days). In every rak'a, after reciting Qur'an 1, we should recite three Suras of Qur'an 36, Qur'an 67, and Qur'an 112.
- Specific practices for the three Nights of Qadr
- I'tikaf in the last ten days of the month
- Reciting Qur'an 6, Qur'an 18 and Qur'an 36 on the last night of the Month of Ramadan.
|8. Sha'ban||9. Ramadan||10. Shawwal|
|Lunar Hijri Calendar|
- Demise of Lady Khadija (a) (Ramadan 10, 3 BH/April 20, 620)
- Birthday of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a) (Ramadan 15, 3/March 1, 625)
- Al-Qadr Night, the night in which the Qur'an was sent down completely (night of 19th, 21st, or 23rd of Ramadan 13 BH/610)
- Conquest of Mecca (Ramadan 20, 8/January 11, 630)
- Martyrdom of Imam 'Ali (a) (Ramadan 21, 40/January 28, 661)
Al-Quds Day takes place every year on the last Friday of Ramadan. Soon after the Islamic revolution in Iran, Imam Khomeini called on Muslims to dedicate this day to demanding the rights of oppressed Muslims in Palestine. On this day, rallies are organized before the Friday Prayer to protest against the occupation of Palestine and the oppression of its people.
Since the end of Ramadan may vary from country to country, if the last day of Ramadan is a Friday or Saturday in Iran, al-Quds day will be held the week before. In some countries, due to a lack of police authorization on Friday, the rally is made on another day, or there is only permission for holding conferences.
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