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مکارم اخلاق.jpg

Moral Verses
Ifk VersesAl-Ukhuwwa VerseAl-It'am VerseAl-Naba' VerseNajwa VerseVerse of TrustsAl-Sulh Verse

Moral Hadiths
Hadith of qurb al-nawafilHadith Makarim al-akhlaqHadith of Mi'rajHadith Junud al-'Aql wa l-Jahl

Moral Virtues
HumilityContentmentGenerosityControlling AngerTruthfulnessHilm (forbearance)AsceticismBraveryChastityInsaf (Equity) • Silat al-RahimWara'Islah dhat al-bayn

Moral Vices
HubrisGreedEnvyLieBackbitingNamima (Talebearing)MiserlinessDisobedience to Parents'Ujb (self-conceit)Sum'aCutting blood relationSpreading grave sinsIngratitudeHypocrisyTabdhir

Moral Terminologies
Jihad with the selfSelf-critical soulCommanding SoulSoul at peaceSelf-reckoningMuraqabaMusharataSinMorality lessonsIstidraj

Scholars of Ethics
Muhammad Mahdi NaraqiAhmad al-NaraqiSayyid 'Ali Qadi Tabataba'iSayyid Rida Baha' al-DiniSayyid 'Abd al-Husayn DastghaybMuhammad Taqi Bahjat

References of Ethics

Qur'anNahj al-balaghaMisbah al-shari'a wa miftah al-haqiqaMakarim al-AkhlaqAl-Mahajjat al-bayda'Tanbih al-khawatir wa nuzhat al-nawazirJami' al-sa'adatMi'raj al-sa'adaAl-Muraqabat

Murāqaba (Arabic: مراقبة) is one's observation over one's actions, speeches and thoughts to avoid disobedience of divine orders. It is the second stage of the three stages of recommended spiritual wayfaring (musharata, muraqaba and muhasaba). Scholars of ethics emphasize on muraqaba very much. They refer to verses and hadiths and consider it among the essentials of spiritual wayfaring.


Muraqaba is the servant's observation of performing actions so that they are not against divine orders. In muraqaba, the servant considers this fact that God Almighty is aware of the appearance and the heart of his actions and of what he has in the heart. Scholars of ethics emphasize on muraqaba very much and consider it among the essentials of spiritual wayfaring. Due to muraqaba, a person will acquire a disposition in which having the knowledge in one's heart, one continuously observes (being in the presence of) God and is occupied and concerned with Him and knows that one will return to God.


Different levels are mentioned for muraqaba:

1. Performing obligations and abandoning forbidden actions

2. Intensifying muraqaba and performing any action only for the contentment of God and avoiding dissolute affairs

3. Seeing God as the observant in all the states and admitting the fact that God Almighty is Omnipresent and Observant over creatures.

4. The highest level of muraqaba is that the wayfarer sees God as the Observant and generally sees the divine beauty.

Some believe that by practicing muraqaba seriously, the wayfarer will discern the unity of God in actions, the unity of God in attributes, the unity of God in names and the unity of God in essence.

In Verses and Hadiths

The scholars of ethics have mentioned verses and hadiths as proofs for the necessity of muraqaba such as:

  • Verse fourteen of the Qur'an 96: Does he not know that Allah sees [him]?
  • A hadith from the Prophet (s): Worship God as if you see Him that though you do not see Him, He sees you.

See Also


  • The material for this article is mainly taken from مراقبه in Farsi WikiShia.