References of Ethics
Qur'an • Nahj al-balagha • Misbah al-shari'a wa miftah al-haqiqa • Makarim al-Akhlaq • Al-Mahajjat al-bayda' • Tanbih al-khawatir wa nuzhat al-nawazir • Jami' al-sa'adat • Mi'raj al-sa'ada • Al-Muraqabat
Ḥadīth junūd al-ʿaql wa l-jahl (Arabic: حدیث جنود العقل و الجهل) is a moral hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a). In this hadith which was transmitted by Sama'a b. Mihran, Imam al-Sadiq (a), in a gathering of his companions, mentioned how intellect and ignorance were created and mentioned seventy five armies for each of them which included many of moral virtues and vices. Some scholars including Mulla Sadra, Mulla Salih Mazandarani, and Imam Khomeini wrote commentaries on it.
Junud al-'aql wa l-jahl is the title of a moral and comprehensive hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a), which al-Kulayni mentioned in al-Kafi as the first hadith, and al-Shaykh al-Saduq in al-Khisal and Ilal al-sharayi' transmitted it in his hadith works from Sama'a b. Mihran. In this hadith, Imam al-Sadiq (a) explained how intellect and ignorance were created and mentioned seventy five armies for each of them which included many moral virtues and vices.
Sama'a b. Mihran narrated that in a gathering of the companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a), there was a mention of intellect and ignorance, and Imam (a) asked his companions to find the path of guidance by knowing the armies of intellect and ignorance. Sama'a said, "I told him [Imam (a)], we do not know anything other than what you teach us; so, Imam (a) began speaking and first explained how intellect and ignorance were created. Imam al-Sadiq (a) mentioned that intellect was the first spiritual being created from the light of God at the right side of the Throne and was obedient to the order of God and honored by Him. He (a) then mentioned how ignorance was created from the saline sea of darkness and disobeyed God's order and damned by Him.
After explaining the way the two were created, Imam al-Sadiq (a) mentioned the number of armies God assigned to both and mentioned seventy five opposite armies in them. Some of these armies are as below:
- Goodness as the minister of intellect and evil as the minister of ignorance,
- Approval of the truth against denial of the truth,
- Hope against hopelessness,
- Justice against injustice,
- Optimism against pessimism,
- Gratitude against ingratitude,
- Trusting God (tawakkul) against greed and avarice,
- Soft-heartedness against hard-heartedness,
- Knowledge against ignorance,
- Chastity and modesty against promiscuity and licentiousness,
- Humility against arrogance,
- Patience against impatience,
- Pardon against revenge,
- Loyalty against disloyalty,
- Love against hatred and grudge,
- Rectitude against lying,
- Praying against lack of prayer,
- Observing the rights of parents against disloyalty,
- Decency against indecency,
- Asking for forgiveness against arrogance,
- Vigorousness against languor, etc.
At the end of the hadith, after mentioning every army of the intellect and ignorance, Imam al-Sadiq (a) told his companions that all these armies of intellect gather only in the Prophet (s), his vicegerent and a faithful person whose heart is with God and other friends of us will have some of these armies.
Hadith junud al-'aql wa l-jahl has been explained by some commentators of hadiths; some of the most important ones of which are the commentaries of Mulla Sadra, Mulla Salih Mazandarani and Imam Khomeini.
- Sharh usul al-kafi: Muhammad Sadr al-Din Shirazi known as Mulla Sadra explained the Hadith junud al-'aql wa l-jahl in details in 140 pages of the first volume of Sharh usul al-kafi.
- Sharh al-kafi – al-usul wa l-rawda: in the first volume of Sharh al-kafi, Mulla Salih Mazandarani studied and researched this hadith.
- Sharh-i hadith-i junud-i 'aql wa jahl: in this Farsi book, after mentioning the text of this hadith and its translation, Imam Khomeini explained some of these attributes (armies) and included some discussions in Islamic philosophy, 'irfan, and ethics. This book was published in 503 pages in 2009 by the Center for Compiling and Publishing the Works of Imam Khomeini.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 21.
- Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 2, p. 589.
- Ṣadūq, ʿIlal al-sharāʾiʿ, vol. 1, p. 114.
- Kamaraʾī, Tarjuma-yi Uṣūl Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 57.
- Mullā Ṣadrā, Sharḥ uṣūl kāfī, vol. 1, p. 399-538.
- Māzandarānī, Sharḥ al-Kāfī_al-Uṣūl wa al-Rawḍa, vol. 1, p. 254-378.
- Imām Khomeinī, Sharh ḥadīth junūd al-ʿaql wa l-jahl, "Introduction"
- Imām Khomeinī, Sayyid Rūḥ Allāh. Sharh ḥadīth junūd al-ʿaql wa l-jahl. Tehran: Markaz-i Nashr-i Āthār-i Imām Khomeinī, 1389 Sh.
- Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī & Muḥammad Ākhūndī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmiyya, 1407 AH.
- Kamaraʾī, Muḥammad Bāqir. Tarjuma-yi Uṣūl Kāfī. Qom: Uswa, 1375 Sh.
- Māzandarānī, Muḥammad Sāliḥ b. Ahmad. Sharḥ al-Kāfī_al-Uṣūl wa al-Rawḍa. Edited by Abu l-Ḥassan Shaʿrānī. Tehran: al-Maktabat al-Islāmīyya, 1383 AH.
- Mullā Ṣadrā, Muḥammad. Sharḥ uṣūl kāfī. Edited by Muḥammad Khājawī. Tehran: Muʾassisa-yi Muṭāliʿāt wa Taḥqīqāt-i Farhangī, 1383 Sh.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Khiṣāl. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: Jāmiʿa Mudarrisīn, 1362 Sh.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. ʿIlal al-sharāʾiʿ. Qom: Kitābfurūshī-yi Dāwarī, 1385 Sh.