Irshad al-qulub (book)
|Irshad al-qulub (book)|
|Author||Hasab b. Abi l-Hasan al-Daylami|
Irshād al-qulūb ilā l-ṣawāb al-munjī man ʿamila bih min alim al-ʿiqāb (Arabic: إرشادُ القُلُوب إلی الصَواب المُنجي من عَمِل بِهِ مِن ألیم العِقاب) is a book written in Arabic by Hasan b. Abi l-Hasan al-Daylami, a scholar of 8th/14th century. The book contains consults from the Qur'an and tradition and virtues of Imam Ali (a) and the Ahl al-Bayt (a). The author wrote this book for salvation of people from divine punishment and also to dominate on their faculties of anger and desire. In the first part of the book in 54 chapters, he has discussed about moral consults and advice and in the second part, he has mentioned virtues and merits of the Ahl al-Bayt (a). Irshad al-qulub has always been referred to, by religious scholars, as a moral reference and has been translated several times.
- Main article: Hasab b. Abi l-Hasan al-Daylami
Hasan b. Abi l-Hasan b. Muhammad al-Daylami, a scholar of 8th century AH, was among the chiefs of Twelver Shia who was knowledgeable in different sciences, especially in jurisprudence, hadith and 'Irfan. Ibn Fahd al-Hilli and al-Allama al-Majlisi narrated hadith from him in their books. His most famous works have been Irshad al-qulub, A'lam al-din and Ghurar al-akhbar wa durar al-athar.
Attribution of the Book
Regarding some evidences, al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin and some other scholars writing bibliographies have judged that the second part of the book about the virtues of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) does not belong to al-Daylami and has been added later. They also have mentioned evidences including the fact that the name of the book is unrelated with the subject of the second part of the book. In this regard, Sayyid Shahab al-Din Mar'ashi Najafi wrote that, "it is almost proved to us that the second volume does not belong to him and anyone who sees and reflects would find this clear and obvious."
However, this opinion has not been approved by many scholars and it has been explained in bibliographies that the whole book belonged to al-Daylami.
Reason for Writing
In the introduction to the book, the author wrote:
"when I saw that the faculties of anger and desire have dominated the children of Adam and everyone seeks his own benefits and have forgotten the grave and hereafter, I wrote this book and named it Irshad al-qulub, so that it saves anyone who acts upon it, from the painful punishment."
This book has been published in one volume including two parts:
- First part, on consults and advice of the Qur'an and tradition.
- Second part, on virtues of Imam Ali (a) and his children.
The author has narrated the hadiths directly from the Prophet (s) and Imams (a) and said that since they are famous, he quoted them directly. However, no one considered these hadiths which have no reference as Mursala and they are regarded as having reference, since similar hadiths can be found in other hadith books having complete references. From this point, it can be understood that al-Daylami did not intend to write a hadith book, but rather wanted to wake up the asleep and the ignorant using consults of the Infallible (a).
The author first has mentioned some advice from the Qur'an and then, has brought consults of the Prophet (s) and Imams (a). Afterwards, he has begun the chapters of the book.
At the beginning, the author has mentioned discussions about moral consults, criticism of the world and worldliness, diseases of the heart and moral and practical vices. Then, he has extensively discussed about repentance, fear and hope of God and virtue such as gratitude, contentment and certainty. The author says that, "I arranged this book in 54 chapters." Some of which are as follow:
- On the reward of advising and well-wishing
- On the value of God-wariness and pious living
- Repentance and its requirements
- Advice and consult
- Apocalypse and the Resurrection
- Piety and God-wariness
- Value of fearing from Almighty God
- Contentment and its benefits
- Trust in God
- Good manner and its reward
- Value of generosity on the way of God
In the second part of the book which is currently in one volume with the first part, a comprehensive discussion on virtues and merits of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) is made. General topics of the second part which are not listed in the book are:
- Attribution of all branches of knowledge to Imam Ali (a)
- His virtues
- Virtues of Lady Fatima (s)
- Bravery and wars of Imam Ali (a)
- His words
- Debates and justifications of Imam Ali (a) with scholars of other religions
- Superiority of the people of the Prophet (s) over other people
- Virtues of other Imams (a)
- Miracles and wonders of the revered grave of Imam Ali (a) in Najaf and mentioning its related historical events
Praising the Book by Others
- In Bihar al-anwar, al-Allama al-Majlisi has introduced this book as fine, containing trustworthy reports and at the same time rare and surprising.
- Mar'ashi Najafi too praised the book and regarded it one of the best ethical books.
- Al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili in Wasa'il al-Shi'a, Al-Sayyid Ni'mat Allah al-Jaza'iri in al-Anwar al-nu'maniyya, Fayd Kashani, Sayyid 'Abd Allah Shubbar and also Muhaddith Nuri have referred to this book in their books.
Researches and Translations
Irshad al-qulub was summarized by al-Shaykh Sharaf al-Din Yahya al-Bahrani who was among the students of al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki. Also in Kanz al-mawa'iz, Mulla Salih Qazwini has quoted al-Daylami's consults from Irshad al-qulub. Some translations of it in Persian have also been published in recent years:
- A translation by Sayyid 'Abd al- Husayn Rida'i published by the Nashr Islamiyya
- A translation from Ali Sulgi Nahawandi with a preface by Muhammad Muhammadi Ishtihardi in two volumes and published in Qom by Nasir publications in Qom.
- A translation by Sayyid Abbas Tabatab'i made in one volume and published by Jami'a Mudarrisin in Qom.
- A translation by Hidayat Allah Mustarhami in two volumes published by Mustafawi publicatiosn in Tehran.
One of the researchers has considered some of these translations inaccurate and has made some criticisms about it.
- Daylamī, Ghurar al-akhbār wa durar al- āthār, p. 12.
- Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 5, p. 251.
- Marʿashī Najafī, Risāla mufarrij al-kurūb fī maʿrifat-i ṣāḥib irshād al-qulūb. p. ?
- Āqā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 1, p. 517.
- Daylamī, Irshād al-qulūb. translated by Ṭabāṭabāʾī, p. 6.
- Daylamī, Irshād al-qulūb. 1377 Sh, vol. 1, p. 5.
- Marʿashī Najafī, Risāla mufarrij al-kurūb fī maʿrifat-i ṣāḥib irshād al-qulūb.
- Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 5, p. 251; Āqā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 1, p. 518.
- Āqā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 1, p. 518.
- Pāknīā Tabrīzī, Āshnāʾī bā manābʿ muʿtabar shiʿa "Irshād al-qulūb ilā al-ṣawāb".
- Fakhr al-Sharīʿa, A weak and awkward translation of "Irshād al-qulūb" (Persian). Nūr al-ʿIlm, 1371 Sh. No 48.
- Amīn, al-Sayyid Muḥsin al-.Aʿyān al-Shīʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf, 1421 AH.
- Āqā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, Muḥammad Muḥsin. Al-Dharīʿa ilā taṣānīf al-Shīʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwāʾ, [n.d].
- Daylamī, , Ḥasan b. Abī l-Ḥasan al-. Ghurar al-akhbār wa durar al- āthār. Qum: Dalīl-i Mā, 1427 AH.
- Daylamī, Ḥasan b. Abī l-Ḥasan al-. Irshād al-qulūb. Qom: Intishārāt-i Raḍī, 1412 AH.
- Daylamī, Ḥasan b. Abī l-Ḥasan al-. Irshād al-qulūb. Translated to Farsi by Riḍāʾī. Tehran: Islāmiyya, 1377 Sh.
- Daylamī, Ḥasan b. Abī l-Ḥasan al-. Irshād al-qulūb. Translated to Farsi by Sulgī. Qom: Nāṣir, 1376 Sh.
- Daylamī, Ḥasan b. Abī l-Ḥasan al-. Irshād al-qulūb. Translated to Farsi by Ṭabāṭabāʾī. Qom: Jāmiʿat al-Mudarrisīn, 1376 Sh.
- Daylamī, Ḥasan b. Abī l-Ḥasan al-. Irshād al-qulūb. Translated to Farsi by Mustarḥamī. Tehran: Muṣṭafawī, 1349 Sh.
- Fakhr al-Sharīʿa, Ḥasan. Tarjuma-yi sust wa nāhanjār-i "Irshād al-qulūb", (A weak and awkward translation of "Irshād al-qulūb") [n.p], Nūr ʿIlm, Fall and Spring 1371. No 48.
- Marʿashī Najafī, Sayyid Shihāb al-Dīn. Risāla mufarrij al-kurūb fī maʿrifat-i ṣāḥib irshād al-qulūb.
- Pāknīā Tabrīzī, ʿAbd al-Karīm. Āshnāyī ba manābʿ muʿtabar shiʿa "Irshād al-qulūb ilā al-ṣawāb". Muballighān Journal. Fall 1389 Sh. No 133.
- پایگاه اطلاعرسانی حوزه The journal of Ofoq Hawza; A selection of the sermons of Prophet Muhammad (Persian)