Nihayat al-maram fi 'ilm al-kalam (book)

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Nihaya al-maram fi 'ilm al-kalam
Author al-Allama al-Hilli
Original title نَهایةُ المَرام فی علمِ الکَلام
Language Arabic
Subject Theology
Published 1419/1998
Publisher Mu'assisat al-Imam al-Sadiq (a)

Nihāya al-marām fī ʿilm al-kalām (Arabic: نهاية المرام في علم الکلام, literally: the ultimate wish in the science of theology) is one of the lengthiest books of Shiite theology in Arabic written by al-Allama al-Hilli, a scholar of the eighth/fourteenth century.

The author explicates and criticizes theological views of various theological sects. He compares views of philosophers with those of theologians concerning monotheism, prophethood, and other theological issues. Moreover, he provides his account of Shiite beliefs in the book.


Main article: Al-'Allama al-Hilli

Abu Mansur Jamal al-Din, Hasan b. Yusuf b. Mutahhar al-Hilli (648/1250 – 726/1326) known as al-'Allama al-Hilli was among the scholars of eighth/fourteenth century. His works and debates led Öljeitü (later called Sultan Mohammad Khudabanda) to accept Shi'a and spread Shi'a in Iran. Al-'Allama al-Hilli had many works in the sciences of fiqh, principles of fiqh, beliefs, logic, supplication, etc. He had three books in rijal which are Khulasa al-aqwal, Kashf al-maqal fi ma'rifat al-rijal and Idah al-ishtibah.

The Author's Method

As the author says in the introduction of the book, his method of writing is to discuss the views of his predecessors, try to fairly adjudicate disputes between theologians and philosophers, and then reconcile philosophical and theological principles.

Structure of the Book

Nihaya al-maram includes an introduction and three general sections under "qa'ida" (rule).

In the introduction, the author is concerned with outlines of theological problems. He then elaborately discusses theological issues under "what is known," "what exists," and "what is created."

Features of the Work

Here are some features of the work:

  • It is the lengthiest theological book written by al-'Allama al-Hilli, and one of the most elaborate books concerning Islamic theology.
  • It covers views of philosophers and theologians as much as possible.
  • The author tries to reconcile the views and arguments of philosophers and theologians.
  • The author observes research ethics and avoids denominational biases. For example, in some cases, he rejects the view of his teacher, Khwaja Nasir and accepts Fakhr al-Razi's objection.
  • The author provides novel ideas and full-blown elaborations.


Nihaya al-maram was first published as edited by Fadil 'Irfan in 1419/1998 in Qom by al-Imam al-Sadiq Institute.