Priority: b, Quality: c

Tafsir al-Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari (a) (book)

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search
Al-Tafsir al-Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari (a)
Author Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari (a)
Original title التفسير المنسوب الی الامام أبي محمد الحسن بن علي العسکري
Language Arabic
Series 1 vol
Subject Exegesis
Genre Hadith
Published 1409/1989
Publisher Madrasa al-Imam al-Mahdi (a), Qom
Exegesis
Q.20.png

Tafsīr al-Imām al-Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī (a) (Arabic:تفسير الامام الحسن العسکري) is a Shi'a, Hadith-based exegesis of the Qur'an from the 3rd/9th century. In this Tafsir some verses are interpreted, while most of interpretations are about the miracles of Prophet Muhammad (s) and the infallible Imams (a). Although the referents of verses were mentioned, less attention have been paid to the occasion of revelation and there is no mention of grammatical or rhetorical discussion. The chain of narrators (Sanad) of the book shows that narrating this book was prevalent among the muhaddiths and jurists of the 4th/10th and 5th/11th centuries in Qom. The available book only contains form the beginning of the Qur'an to the 282th verse of Qur'an 2.

Features

The Tafsir starts with some hadiths about the merits of the Qur'an, interpretations of it, etiquette of reciting it, and continues with hadiths about the virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (a)[1] and vices of their enemies.[2]

Overall, 379 hadiths are quoted in the book, most of which are as lengthy as several pages;[3] thus sometimes the structure of hadiths is missing or even some of them suffer from incoherence.

In this Tafsir some verses are interpreted, while most of interpretations are about the miracles of Prophet Muhammad (s) and the infallible Imams (a).[4] Although the referents of verses were mentioned, less attention have been paid to the occasion of revelation and there is no mention of grammatical or rhetorical discussion.[5]

Interpretation of a verse usually starts with explanation of the words in the verse and then hadiths related to the verse are quoted. In some cases, the hadiths related to the occasion of revelation of the verse are mixed with exegetical hadiths of the verse.[6]

Meaning of Shi'a,[7] meaning of Rafidi,[8] Taqiyya (Precautionary Dissimulation)[9] and virtues of some of the companions of Prophet Muhammad (s), including Khabbab b. Aratt and 'Ammar b. Yasir[10] are some additional topics mentioned in this Tafsir. Some exegetical points such as the interpretation of the Forbidden Tree[11] as the tree of the knowledge of Muhammad (s) and Ahl al-Bayt (a) are only found in this book.[12]

Sanad

The chain of narrators (Sanad) of the book shows that narrating this book was prevalent among the muhaddiths and jurists of the 4th/10th and 5th/11th centuries in Qom.[13] Muhammad b. Qasim Istarabadi al-Khatib, known as Mufassir al-Jurjani, - who is maybe the compiler of the book - has narrated the content of the book from the two narrators of the book: Abu al-Hasan Ali b. Muhammad b. Sayyar (Yasar) and Abu Ya'qub Yusuf b. Muhammad b. Ziyad.[14]

In the short introduction form the two narrators of the book, they said after that Hasan b. Zayd came into power they were forced to emigrated from their hometown. Since they said that they went to Imam Hasan al-'Askari (a), they must have entered Samarra after 254/868, the year that Imam al-'Askari (a) became Imam.

They added that they learned what they have narrated in 7 years from Imam al-'Askari (a);[15] however, they did not mention the martyrdom of the Imam in 260/874. Apparently, they returned to their hometowns after the martyrdom of Imam al-'Askari (a).

Authenticity

Although the book is among the earliest Shi'a exegeses, its authenticity is a subject of controversy. Al-Shaykh al-Saduq (d. 381/991) is the first Shi'a scholar who has frequently quoted excerpts from the Tafsir in his works; without discussing the authenticity of it. He had taken the text of the book directly from al-Istarabadi. At the beginning of Man la yahduruh al-faqih, he mentioned that what he has compiled in this book is Sahih (reliable and authentic) from his viewpoint and the hadiths in it were taken from authentic and famous sources.[16] Moreover, in a chapter of "Talbiya" he has narrated a hadith from al-Istarabadi and at the end of the hadiths he mentioned that he has narrated the rest of it in the Tafsir.[17] Therefore, if al-Shaykh al-Saduq were not the compiler of the book, he was probably the editor of it. This hypothesis is also supported by what al-Najashi (d. after 463/1071) reported that there were two exegetical works among those of al-Shaykh al-Saduq, titled as "Tafsir al-Qur'an" and "Mukhtasar al-Tafsir".[18]

Another piece of evidence is a hadith that al-Shaykh al-Saduq has narrated in al-Tawhid from the same chain of narrators.[19] At the end of the hadith, al-Shaykh al-Saduq said that he has narrated the complete hadith is his Tafsir.[20]

Doubts about Authenticity

The first Shi'a scholar who cast doubt on the authenticity of the book is Ibn al-Ghada'iri. In his book al-Du'afa', Ibn al-Ghada'iri has described Muhammad b. Qasim al-Istarabadi as a weak (unreliable) and liar. He also said the two narrator who has narrated the book via their fathers form Imam al-'Askari (a) are unknown and hence, cannot be trusted. He believed that this Tafsir is "forged" by Sahl b. Ahmad b. 'Abd Allah al-Dibaji (d. 380/990-1).[21]

However, the supporter of the authenticity of the book have tried to clear up the doubts about its authenticity. First they questioned the attribution of al-Du'afa to Ibn al-Ghada'iri. Then they argued that according to the Tafsir, Ibn Sayyar and Abu Ya'qub has narrated the text of the Tafsir directly form Imam al-'Askari (a). In addition, al-Najashi has described Sahl b. Ahmad as someone that there is no dispraise about him, also al-Khatib al-Baghdadi mentioned that he was a Shi'a and al-Shaykh al-Mufid (d. 413/1022) performed Salat al-Mayyit to his body; all of which show that he had a high status among Shi'a.

Other scholars have questioned the authenticity of the Tafsir as there is Hasan b. Khalid al-Barqi in the chain of narrators of the book, while - as it is believed by al-Shaykh al-Tusi - al-Barqi did not meet any Imams and could not have narrated hadith form them directly. However, some scholars who have studied various manuscripts of the book said al-Barqi is not in any chains of narrators of hadiths in this book.

Narrators

Besides al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Abu Mansur Ahmad b. Ali al-Tabrisi has mentioned this book among the sources of his book al-Ihtijaj. Since he pointed that the Tafsir was not famous, he has mentioned the complete chain of narrators of it.[22]

Moreover, Sa'id b. Hibat Allah al-Rawandi has quoted an excerpt from the Tafsir without mentioning its name.[23] Ibn Shahrashub has also quoted from the book, and mentioned its name; but not the chain of narrators.[24]

Furthermore, 'Abd al-Jalil al-Qazwini has mentioned a book titled as Tafsir al-Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari (a) as one of the famous Shi'a exegesis in his book al-Naqd - which he was writing in 560/1165. However, because he did not quote anything from the book, it is not certain that what he has mentioned is this book.[25]

Translations

  • The oldest available Persian translation is titled as Athar al-akhyar, translated by Abu al-Hasan Ali b. Hasan Zavari'i (d. 984/1576-7). It is a translation of the whole text of the book.[26]
  • A translation by Ghudrat Allah Husayni Shahmuradi of Sura al-Fatiha from this Tafsir along with a lengthy introduction proving the authenticity of the Tafsir.
  • An Urdu translation by Sayyid Husayn Bahrilui (Barilui) (d. 1361/1942) titled as Athar Haydari.[27] The Arabic text has been published several times.[28] The book was compared to 6 available manuscripts of it and published in Qom in 1409/1988-9, by the efforts of Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Abtahi.

Notes

  1. See: Ḥadīth Sadd al-Abwāb, p. 17.
  2. al-Tafsīr al-mansūb ilā al-Imām al-Ḥasan, p. 47.
  3. al-Tafsīr al-mansūb ilā al-Imām al-Ḥasan, p. 656-672.
  4. al-Tafsīr al-mansūb ilā al-Imām al-Ḥasan, p. 429-441, 497-500.
  5. Raḍawī, Nigāhī bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan Askarī , p. 313.
  6. Raḍawī, Nigāhī bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan Askarī , p. 477-479.
  7. Raḍawī, Nigāhī bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan Askarī , p. 307-310.
  8. Raḍawī, Nigāhī bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan Askarī , p. 310-311.
  9. Raḍawī, Nigāhī bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan Askarī , p. 320-324.
  10. Raḍawī, Nigāhī bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan Askarī , p. 624-625.
  11. Qur'an 2:35.
  12. Raḍawī, Nigāhī bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan Askarī , p. 221-222.
  13. Raḍawī, Nigāhī bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan Askarī, p. 7-8.
  14. Raḍawī, Nigāhī bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan Askarī, p. 9.
  15. Raḍawī, Nigāhī bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan Askarī, p. 10.
  16. Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 1, p. 3.
  17. Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 2, p. 211-212.
  18. Najāshī, Fihrist asmāʾ muṣannifī al-Shīʿa, p. 391-392.
  19. Ṣadūq, al-Tawḥīd, p. 47.
  20. al-Tafsīr al-mansūb ilā al-Imām al-Ḥasan, p. 50-52.
  21. Ibn Ghaḍāʾīrī, Rijāl Ibn Ghaḍāʾirī, p. 98.
  22. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 1, p. 6-8.
  23. Rāwandī, al-Kharāʾij wa l-jarāʾiḥ, vol. 2, p. 519-521.
  24. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl-i Abī Ṭālib, vol. 1, p. 92.
  25. Qazwīnī, al-Naqḍ, p. 212, 285.
  26. Bukāʾī, Kitābkhāna-yi buzurg-i Qurʾān-i karīm, vol. 1, p. 2.
  27. Bukāʾī, Kitābkhāna-yi buzurg-i Qurʾān-i karīm, vol. 1, p. 3.
  28. Āgā Buzurg Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 4, p. 292; Bukāʾī, Kitābkhāna-yi buzurg-i Qurʾān-i karīm, vol. 5, p. 1904.

References

  • Al-Tafsīr al-mansūb ilā al-Imām al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī al-ʿAskarī. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Abṭaḥī. Qom: 1409 AH.
  • Āgā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, Muḥammad Muḥsin. Al-Dharīʿa ilā taṣānīf al-shīʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwāʾ, 1403 AH.
  • Bukāʾī, Muḥammad Ḥasan. Kitābkhāna-yi buzurg-i Qurʾān-i karīm. Tehran: 1374 Sh.
  • Ḥillī, al-Ḥasan b. Yūsuf al-. Rijāl al-ʿallāma al-Ḥillī. Edited by Sayyid Muḥammad Ṣādiq Baḥr al-ʿUlūm. Najaf: 1381 AH.
  • Ḥasanzāda, Āmulī. Hizār-o-yik kalima. Qom: Būstān-i Kitāb, 1375 Sh.
  • Ibn al-Jawzī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī. Al-Muntaẓam fī tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Edited by Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭāʾ and Muṣṭafā ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭāʾ. Beirut: 1412 AH.
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl-i Abī Ṭālib. Edited by Ḥāshim Rasūlī. Qom: [n.d].
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Maʿālim al-ʿulamā. Najaf: 1380 AH/1960.
  • Ibn Ghaḍāʾīrī, Aḥmad b. Ḥusayn. Rijāl Ibn Ghaḍāʾirī. Edited by Muḥammad Riḍā Ḥusaynī Jalālī. Qom: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 1380 Sh.
  • Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Tārīkh-i Baghdād. Edited by Musṭafā ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭā. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1417 AH.
  • Najāshī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Fihrist asmāʾ muṣannifī al-Shīʿa al-mushtahir bi rijāl al-Najāshī. Edited by Mūsā Shubayrī Zanjānī. Qom: 1407 AH.
  • Nūrī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad Taqī. Khātima al-mustadrak al-wasāʾil. Qom: 1415, 1420 AH.
  • Qazwīnī, ʿAbd al-Jalīl. Al-Naqḍ. Edited by Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥaddith Armawī. Tehran: 1358 Sh.
  • Raḍawī, Saʿīd. Nigahi bi tafsīr mansūb bi Imām Ḥasan ʿAskarī (a). Faṣlnāma-yi Pazhūhishhā-yi Qurʾānī. Spring and Summer 1375, No 5, 6.
  • Rāwandī, Saʿīd b. Hibat Allah al-. Al-Kharāʾij wa l-jarāʾiḥ. Qom: 1409 AH.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Amālī. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Biʿtha, 1417 AH.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Tawḥīd. Printed by Sayyid Hāshim Ḥusaynī Tehrānī. Qom: 1357 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Maʿānī l-akhbār. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: 1361 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh. Qom: 1413 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī. Najaf: 1380 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāʾī Yazdī, Muḥammad Kāẓim al-. Al-ʿUrwat al-wuthqā. Beirut: 1409 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Iḥtijāj ʿalā ahl al-lijāj. Edited by Ibrāhīm Bahārī and Muḥammad Hādī. Qom: 1413 AH.
  • Ustādī, Riḍā. Risālat ukhrā hawl al-tafsīr al-mansūb ilā al-Imām al-ʿAskarī (a) dar al-rasāʾil al-ʿarbaʿat ʿashara. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1415 AH.