Islamic Philosophy (Arabic: الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a discipline concerned with the general problems of being, knowledge, soul, God, and religion. It is originated in Ancient Greece. The first Muslim philosopher was al-Kindi and the founder of the Islamic philosophy was al-Farabi. There have been three important schools of the Islamic philosophy: the Peripatetic or "Mashsha'" philosophy, the Illuminationist or "Ishraq" philosophy, and the Transcendent Philosophy or "al-Hikmat al-Muta'aliya".
The most prominent Muslim philosophers are al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, al-Suhrawardi, Ibn Rushd, Mir Damad, and Mulla Sadra. The most siginificant texts in the Islamic philosophy are al-Isharat wa l-tanbihat, Hikmat al-ishraq, al-Qabasat, al-Asfar al-arba'a, al-Shawahid al-rububiyya, and Nihayat al-hikma.
In the Islamic world, the Islamic philosophy faced some oppositions. Some of its opponents hold that it involves blasphemous contents; others believe that it is as helpful as any other discipline or science, but it has no role in our religious knowledge, and sacred religious texts should not be interpreted in accordance with such philosophical foundations. The best-known Shiite school of thought which opposes the Islamic philosophy is the school of Tafkik.
The Islamic philosophy is a discipline that deals with the general problems of being, such as existence, quiddities, causation, as well as knowledge, soul, God, and religion with a rational, discursive approach. By a rational discursive method, philosophers mean arguments for philosophical positions which are based on rationally evident propositions.
The problems of the Islamic philosophy have been categorized into 5 general parts:
- General issues or general theology (metaphysics): general properties of existence, independent and dependent (or relational) existence, mental existence, the three modalities, construction, quiddity, unity and plurality, causation, potentiality and actuality, immutability and mutability, knowledge, knower, and the known, and the ten Aristotelian categories.
- Theology proper: the essence of God, monotheism, general issues of attributes, proof of divine attributes such as omniscience, omnipotence, life, will, speech, audition, and vision, and problems generated by some of these attributes such as predestination, divine tablet and pen (al-lawh wa l-qalam), divine Throne ('Arsh), al-Kursi, determinism (jabr), and tafwid (delegation of actions to human beings), as well as problems concerning divine actions, such as immaterial worlds, the problem of evil, continuity of divine grace (fayd), and the incipience (huduth) of the world.
- Psychology ('ilm al-nafs): definition of the soul, proof of the existence of the soul, proof of the substantiality (jawhariyya) of the soul, proof of the immateriality of the soul, incipience (huduth) or eternity (qidam) of the soul, faculties of the soul and their tasks, how faculties of the soul interact with the soul, and survival of the soul after death.
- Epistemology: there is no separate part of the Islamic philosophy devoted to epistemological issues, but there are some epistemological issues here and there in books concerning discursive arguments (al-burhan).
- Philosophical study of the religion: the nature of death, rejection of tanasukh (metempsychosis), proof of resurrection, the world of barzakh or al-mithal al-munfasil (discontinuous imaginal world), the nature of hashr (gathering of people on the day of resurrection), the nature of resurrection, the nature of calculations and evaluations on the day of resurrection, the nature of happiness and misery, the nature of the heaven and the hell, the nature of revelation, the necessity of the revelation, the problem of prophethood, and bodily resurrection.
The Islamic philosophy has its origin in the Ancient Greek philosophy. Since the 2nd/8th century, Muslims began to translate Greek philosophical works into Arabic. In this century, much of Aristotle's work, as well as that of the commentators of the Alexandrian school, much of Galen's work and some of Plato's dialogues were translated into Arabic. The first Muslim philosopher, al-Kindi, lived in this period. During the academic movement which emerged from the translation of Greek texts into Arabic, al-Kindi moved to Baghdad and studied many Greek books, and in particular, Aristotle's work.
Challenge of the Appellation
One challenge for the Islamic philosophy was its appellation. Some people take "Islamic philosophy" to be an inconsistent composition because the methodology of philosophy is inconsistent with that of the religion. For philosophical propositions are proved by purely discursive arguments, while religious doctrines of the Quran and hadiths are to be accepted by way of servitude to, or obedience of, God. The challenge is not specific to the Islamic philosophy. Étienne Gilson wrote that some people take Christian philosophy to be impossible because it is a contradictory notion that is impossible to be realized.
In reply to this objection, Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi holds that a minimal relation between philosophy and Islam suffices for the consistency of the notion of Islamic philosophy. He believes that some problems of the Islamic philosophy are originated in Islamic doctrines and some of them are at the service of Islamic issues, and this much of relation suffices for the legitimacy of the notion of Islamic philosophy. In order to resolve the apparent inconsistency of the notion of Islamic philosophy, some people suggest that religious doctrines can have an impact on philosophy in such a way that its discursive rational nature is preserved. They hold that Islamic doctrines can affect the Islamic philosophy by reorienting philosophical problems, raising some problems, initiating some arguments, and resolving some errors.
Philosophical Schools in the Islamic World
The three important philosophical schools in the Islamic world are the Mashsha' or Islamic peripatetic philosophy, the Ishraq or Illuminationist philosophy, and the Transcendent Wisdom or Philosophy. The first school of the Islamic philosophy, the Mashsha' philosophy, has been under the influence of Aristotle and employs a fully discursive methodology. The most prominent Mashsha' philosopher is considered to be Ibn Sina (Avicenna). On the contrary, the Ishraq philosophy emphasizes on inner intuition and spiritual journey. The founder of the Ishraq philosophy is Shihab al-Din al-Suhrawardi.
The Transcendent Philosophy refers to a philosophical system established by Mulla Sadra. He combined the three rational, transmitted, and intuitive methods to construct a new philosophical school that fills the gaps of earlier philosophical schools. In the Transcendent Philosophy, three sources of knowledge, that is, wahy (or divine revelation), reason, and spiritual intuition or mystical revelation, are linked.
The most important Muslim philosophers include al-Kindi, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina (or Avicenna), Ibn Rushd (or Averroes), al-Suhrawardi, Mulla Sadra, Mulla Hadi Sabzawari, and Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i. Al-Kindi, who came to be known as the "Arab Philosopher", was the first philosopher in the Islamic world. He lived in 2nd/8th and 3rd/9th centuries, and was highly influenced by Aristotle. Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi (b. 260/873-74, d. 339/950) is considered to be the founder of the Islamic philosophy and came to be known as the Second Teacher (al-mu'allim al-thani).
Ibn Sina (b. 370/980, d. 428/1036-37) was the greatest peripatetic philosopher in the Islamic world. His philosophical work has been the most important source of the Islamic philosophy. Ibn Rushd (b. 520/1126, d. 595/1198-99) was also a peripatetic philosopher who tried to remain loyal to the Aristotelian philosophy. Al-Suhrawardi (b. 549/1154, d. 587/1191) was known as "Shaykh al-Ishraq". His four important philosophical works are the most important texts of the Illuminationist philosophy.
Mir Damad (d. 1041/1631-32) was Mulla Sadra's teacher. It is believed that he paved the path for Mulla Sadra's Transcendent philosophy. Mulla Sadra (d. 1050/1640) was the founder of the Transcendent philosophy. He elaborated his philosophical system in his monumental work, al-Asfar al-arba'a.
Mulla Hadi Sabzawari (b. 1212/1797-98, d. 1289/1872) is considered to be the most important Iranian philosopher in the 13th/19th century. He is a significant commentator of Mulla Sadra's philosophy.
Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i (b. 1904, d. 1981) was one of the most influential Shiite scholars in the intellectual, religious atmosphere of Iran in the 20th century. Many later teachers of the Islamic philosophy in the Islamic seminary of Qom were his students.
According to Morteza Motahhari, although the Islamic philosophy is originated in the Greek philosophy, Muslim philosophers have remarkably expanded it by producing a great deal of written work. Here are the most important philosophical works written by Muslims:
- Al-Isharat wa l-tanbihat by Ibn Sina concerning logic, natural philosophy, theology, mysticism, and Sufism.
- Al-Shifa' is considered a masterpiece of Ibn Sina and the Islamic Peripatetic philosophy. It has widely been cited and consulted by Muslim philosophers, and it has been taught since the time of Ibn Sina until now.
- Hikmat al-ishraq is the most important book by Shihab al-Din al-Suhrawardi and is the main source of the Illuminationist philosophy.
- Al-Qabasat is the most important work by Mir Damad. It is concerned with the problem of creation and how the world is emanated by God.
- Al-Asfar al-arba'a by Mulla Sadra elaborates his new philosophical school, that is the Transcendent philosophy.
- Al-Shawahid al-rububiyya is the most important philosophical work by Mulla Sadra in which all of his philosophical views are presented in a succinct way.
- Nihayat al-hikma is an advanced textbook for the Islamic philosophy written by Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i.
- Principles of philosophy and the method of realism (usul-i falsafa wa rawish-i ri'alism) is a book written in Persian by Sayyid Muhammad Tabataba'i as a material for his lectures presented to some students of the Islamic seminary of Qom.
Opposition to Philosophy in the Islamic World
The Islamic world has reacted differently to philosophy. Many Shiite scholars take the entry of the Greek philosophy to the Islamic world to be a conspiracy by the Abbasid government in order to prevent people from referring to Ahl al-Bayt (a) by presenting new sciences. Philosophers such as Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i and Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi have admitted that this was the intention of the Abbasids.
Opponents of the Islamic philosophy have a different view about it. Some of them take philosophy to be blasphemous and thus, they excommunicate philosophers from Islam. And some of them believe that philosophy involves some blasphemous contents, but since Muslim philosophers are not cognizant of such contents, they should not be considered as unbelievers. More moderate opponents of the Islamic philosophy hold that philosophy is as helpful as other disciplines and sciences, but maintain that philosophy has no role in religious knowledge and thus, sacred religious texts should not be interpreted in accordance with philosophical foundations.
School of Tafkik
- Main article: School of Tafkik
The School of Tafkik is the best-known Shiite school of thought which opposes the Islamic philosophy. It emphasizes the separation (tafkik) of three paths to knowledge: the Quran, philosophy, and mysticism. It aims to free the Quranic knowledge from any combinations with other sources of knowledge. Scholars of the school of Tafkik do not have a single unified position with respect to philosophy. Earlier scholars of Tafkik, such as Mirza Mahdi Isfahani and Mahmud Halabi, find an inconsistency between philosophy and sharia, but later scholars, such as Sayyid Ja'far Sayyidan and Muhammad Rida Hakimi do not reject philosophy altogether, taking the point of Tafkik to be a separation between different methods.
- ʿUbūdīyyat, Āyā Falsafa-yi Islāmī dārīm?, p. 28.
- ʿUbūdīyyat, Āyā Falsafa-yi Islāmī dārīm?, p. 28-29.
- Motahhari, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, vol. 14, p. 458.
- Corbin, Tārīkh-i Falsafa-yi Islāmī, p. 210.
- ʿUbūdīyyat, Āyā Falsafa-yi Islāmī dārīm?, p. 30-31.
- Gilson, Rawḥ-i Falsafa-yi qurūn-i wusṭā, p. 7-8.
- Miṣbāḥ Yazdī, Falsafa-yi Islāmī, p. 13.
- ʿUbūdīyyat, Āyā Falsafa-yi Islāmī dārīm?, p. 32-33.
- Motahhari, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, vol. 5, p. 148.
- Corbin, Tārīkh-i Falsafa-yi Islāmī, p. 272; Motahhari, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, vol. 5, p. 148.
- Naṣr, Mullāṣadra; Taʿālīm, p. 193-210.
- Fākhūrī, Tārīkh falsafa dar jahān-i Islāmī, p. 374-380.
- Fākhūrī, Tārīkh falsafa dar jahān-i Islāmī, p. 397-398.
- Motahhari, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, vol. 5, p. 148.
- Ḍīyāʾī, Shihāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī, p. 271.
- Ḍīyāʾī, Shihāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī, p. 273-275.
- Dabāshī, Mīr Dāmād wa taʾsīs-i maktab-i Iṣfahān, p. 28-132.
- Ḥāʾirī Yazdī, Darāmadī bar kitāb-i Asfār, p. 707.
- Ḥusaynī Sūrkī, Nigāhī ijmālī bi ārāʾ wa afkar, p. 9.
- Motahhari, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, vol. 5, p. 26-32.
- Malikshāhī, Ishārāt wa shubahāt-i Ibn Sinā, p. 57.
- Gharawīyan, Ilāhīyāt-i shifā wa sharḥ-i ān, p. 53.
- Ḥabībī, Ḥikmat-i Ishrāq, vol. 13, p. 770.
- Āshināyī bā kitāb-i al-qabasāt, p. 111.
- Ḥāʾirī Yazdī, Darāmadī bar kitāb-i Asfār, p. 707.
- Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī, al-Shawāhid al-rabawīyya, p. 132.
- Ṭabāṭabā'ī, Uṣūl wa falsafa-yi Riʾālīsm, p. 11.
- Ḥakīmī, Maktab-i tafkīk, p. 44.
- Khusrupanāh, Jaryān shināsī-yi fikrī, p. 111.
- Khusrupanāh, Jaryān shināsī-yi fikrī, p. 118.
- Group of authors. 1386 Sh. Āshināyī bā kitāb-i al-qabasāt. Ḥikmat-i Raḍawī 16, 17:109-112.
- Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī, Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm. Al-shawāhid al-rabawīyya fī l-manāhij al-sulūkīyya. Edited by Sayyid Jalāl al-Dīn Āshtīyānī. Fourth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, 1386 Sh.
- Corbin, Henry. Tārīkh-i Falsafa-yi Islāmī. Translated to Farsi by Mubashshirī. Second edition. Tehran: Amīr Kabīr, 1385 Sh.
- Dabāshī, Ḥamīd. 1386 Sh. Mīrdāmād wa taʾsīs-i maktab-i Iṣfahān. Tārīkh-i Falsafa-yi Islāmī 3:28-132.
- Ḍīyāʾī, Ḥusayn. 1386 Sh. Shihāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī bunyān gudhār-i maktab-i ishrāq. Tārīkh-i Falsafa-yi Islāmī 2.
- Fākhūrī, Khalīl. Tārīkh falsafa dar jahān-i Islāmī. Translated to Farsi by ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Āyatī. Tehran: ʿIlmī wa Farhangī, 1373 Sh.
- Gharawīyan, Muḥsin. 1370 Sh. Ilāhīyāt shifā wa sharḥ-i ān. Āyina-yi Pazhūhish 11:51-55.
- Gilson, Étienne. Rawḥ-i Falsafa-yi qurūn-i wusṭā. Translated to Farsi by Dāwūdī. Tehran: Shirkat-I Intishārāt-i ʿIlmī wa Farhangī, 1379 Sh.
- Ḥabībī, Najafqulī. 1387 Sh. Ḥikmat-i Ishrāq. Dānishnāma-yi jahān-i Islām 13:770-772.
- Ḥāʾirī Yazdī, Mahdī. 1371 Sh. Darāmadī bar kitāb-i Asfār. Irān Shināsī 16: 707-712.
- Ḥakīmī, Muḥammad Riḍā. Maktab-i tafkīk. Qom: Markaz-i Barrasīha-yi Islāmī, 1373 Sh.
- Ḥusaynī Sūrkī, Sayyid Muḥammad. 1380 Sh. Nigāhī ijmālī bi ārāʾ wa afkar wa sabk wa sulūk-i fikrī wa falsafī-yi mullā Hādī Sabziwārī. Ḥikmat-i Raḍawī 1:7-13.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Uṣūl wa falsafa-yi Riʾālīsm. Edited by Khurramshāhī. Qom: Būstān-i Kitāb, 1387 Sh.
- Khusrupanāh. Jaryān shināsī-yi fikrī-yi Irān-i muʿāṣir. Third edition. Qom: Taʿlīm wa Tarbīyat-i Islāmī, 1390 Sh.
- Malikshāhī, Ḥasan. 1350 Sh. Ishārāt wa shubahāt-i Ibn Sinā. Maqālāt wa Barrasīha 5, 6:56-72.
- Miṣbāḥ Yazdī, et. al. 1383 Sh. Falsafa-yi Islāmī mīz-i gird-i falsaf-i shināsī. Maʿrifat-i Falsafī 3:11-26.
- Motahhari, Morteza. Majmūʿa-yi āthār. Fifteenth edition. Tehran: Ṣadrā, 1389 Sh.
- Nasr, Seyyed Hossein . 1386 Sh. Mullāṣadra; taʿālīm. Tārīkh-i Falsafa-yi Islāmī 2.
- ʿUbūdīyyat, ʿAbd al-Rasūl. 1382 Sh. Āyā Falsafa-yi Islāmī dārīm?. Maʿrifat-i Falsafī 1:27-42.