Priority: c, Quality: b

Truthful One

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Truthful One or Ṣiddīq (Arabic: الصِدّیق) is a truthful person who never lies. Some prophets have been characterized in the Qur'an as "siddiq" or truthful.

"Al-Siddiq al-Akbar" is a title of Imam Ali (a). The Prophet Muhammad (s) gave him the titles "al-Siddiq al-Akbar" (الصديق الاکبر) and Faruq. Also Fatima al-Zahra (a) is called "Siddiqa" (الصديقة) and "al-Siddiqa al-Kubra" (الصديقة الكبرى).

Imam 'Ali (a)
I am the servant of God and His messenger's brother and I am " the greatest truthful". No one will claim this title after me except liars.

Sunan al-Nasa'i, vol.5 p. 107; Kanaz al-'ummal, vol.13 p.122; al-Mustadrak, vol.3 p.112

Lexicology and Quranic usage

The plural form of the word "siddiq" is "siddiqun". "Siddiq" in terms of the Arabic grammar is an exaggerative form from the root "s-d-q" (ص-د-ق), meaning a person who always exhibits "sidq" (Arabic: الصدق) that is, truth or honesty.[1]

In the Qur'an, the single form of "siddiq" has been used four times and its plural form was used two times.[2].[3] Ibrahim (a)[4] and Idris (a)[5] have been characterized in the Quran as "siddiq", and Maryam (a) (St Mary the Virgin) has been characterized as "siddiqa"[6] (the female form of "siddiq"). In hadiths, Imam 'Ali (a) has been characterized as "Siddiq"[7] and Fatima al-Zahra (a) as "Siddiqa" or "al-Siddiqa al-Kubra".[8]

Position of Siddiqun

According to Raghib al-Isfahani, siddiqun are people who are very close to prophets with respect to virtues.[9]

According to a hadith in Shiite sources, when a "siddiqa" (a female siddiq) dies, no one can do her washing rituals except a siddiq. For example, Fatima al-Zahra's (a) washing rituals were done by Imam 'Ali (a), and Maryam's (a) washing rituals were done by Jesus (Isa) (a).[10]

Al-Siddiq al-Akbar

In Shiite and Sunni sources, Imam 'Ali (a) has been characterized by the Prophet (s) as al-Siddiq al-Akbar.[11] The Prophet (s) mentioned 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), the believer of Pharaoh's People (Mu'min Al Fir'awn) and Habib al-Najjar as Siddiq, emphasizing that 'Ali (a) is the greatest ("Akbar") among them.[12]

According to Sunni sources, Abu Bakr is also characterized as "siddiq" in Hadith of Mi'raj[13] or, on other accounts, he was called so since the period of Jahiliyya (ignorance).[14] However, the hadith has been rejected as unreliable by some Sunni scholars.[15] Ibn Jawzi cited the hadith as a fake one in his book, al-Mawdu'at.[16]

Shiite scholars reject the title of "siddiq" for Abu Bakr. Moreover, they appeal to hadiths from Sunni sources[17] to show that this title as well as the title, Faruq, are exclusively those of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), since during his caliphate, he stated on the minbar of Basra that the titles are exclusive his.[18]

Notes

  1. Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, vol. 10, p. 193-194.
  2. al-Muʿjam al-mufahris, p. 406.
  3. Qur'an 4:69.
  4. Qur'an 19:41; And mention in the Book Abraham. Indeed, he was a truthful man and a prophet.
  5. Qur'an 19:56; And mention in the Book Idrees. Indeed, he was a truthful one and a prophet.
  6. Qur'an 5:75; The Messiah, son of Mary, is but an apostle. Certainly, [other] apostles have passed before him, and his mother was a truthful one.
  7. Kāshānī, Manhaj al-ṣādiqīn, p. 342; Ṣadūq, al-Amālī,p. 274; Ṣadūq, ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, vol. 2, p. 9.
  8. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 3, p. 133; Ṣadūq, al-Amālī,p. 668.
  9. Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, al-Mufradāt, p. 227.
  10. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 159; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 1, p. 440; Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 2, p. 530.
  11. Kāshānī, Manhaj al-ṣādiqīn, p. 342; Ṣadūq, al-Amālī,p. 274; Ṣadūq, ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, vol. 2, p. 9; Muttaqī Hindī, Kanz al-ʿummāl, vol. 11, p. 616; Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 12; bn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 2, p. 286; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 1, p. 431; Ibn Abī Shayba, al-Muṣannif, vol. 7, p. 498; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 13, p. 200; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 6, p. 269.
  12. Ibn Maghāzīlī, Manāqib ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, p. 200; Muttaqī Hindī, Kanz al-ʿummāl, vol. 11, p. 601.
  13. Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 167; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 170.
  14. Darza, Tārīkh al-ʿarab fī al-Islām, p. 26.
  15. Muttaqī Hindī, Kanz al-ʿummāl, vol. 13, p. 236; Dhahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, vol. 1, p. 540; Ibn Ḥabbān, al-Majrūḥīn, vol. 2, p. 116.
  16. Ibn Jawzī, al-Mawḍūʿāt, vol. 1, p. 327.
  17. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 146; Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 169; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 2, p. 310; Ibn Māja, Sunan Ibn Māja, vol. 1, 0. 44; Nasā'ī, Sunan al-kubrā, p. 21-22; Juwaynī, Farāʾid al-samṭayn, vol. 1, p. 140, 248; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 13, p. 228; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 3, p. 26; Suyūṭī, al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaghīr, vol. 2, p. 50.
  18. ʿĀmilī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ min sīrat al-nabī, vol. 2, p. 263-270; Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 2, p. 312-314.

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