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Supplication of Umm Dawud

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This article is an introduction to the Supplication of Umm Dawud; to read its text see Text:Umm Dawud Supplication.

Umm Dāwūd or Istiftāḥ supplication (Arabic: دعاء أم داود) is a Ma'thura supplication and among Umm Dawud practices. Umm Dawud practices are recommended to be performed on Rajab 15th and Umm Dawud supplication is the last part of them.

Since Umm Dawud, the foster mother of Imam al-Sadiq (a) transmitted this supplication from him, it has become famous as Umm Dawud supplication. According to the report of al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Imam al-Sadiq (a) described this supplication very valuable.

Al-Shaykh al-Saduq's Fada'il al-ashhur al-thalatha, al-Shaykh al-Tusi's Misbah al-mutahajjid and al-Sayyid b. Tawus's Iqbal al-a'mal are among hadith sources of Umm Dawud supplication. This supplication is also mentioned in a Sunni hadith source.

Umm Dawud

Main article: Umm Dawud

The name of Umm Dawud was Fatima or Habiba.[1] She became famous with the teknonym "Umm Dawud" because of his son, Dawud b. al-Hasan.[2] Dawud is considered among the companions of Imam al-Baqir (a) or Imam al-Sadiq (a).[3] Umm Dawud was al-Hasan al-Muthanna's wife and the foster mother of Imam al-Sadiq (a).[4]

Merits

According to the report of al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Imam al-Sadiq (a) mentioned the merits of the supplication for Umm Dawud before teaching it to her, saying that it was a supplication for which God opens the doors of the sky, angels give good news of its acceptance and its reward] will not be less than the paradise.[5]

Some famous scholars of Shi'a including al-Shaykh al-Tusi, Sayyid b. Tawus and Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi considered Umm Dawud supplication effective in removing afflictions, fulfillment of requests and removing oppression.[6]

Manner of Recitation

Umm Dawud supplication is mentioned among Umm Dawud practices performed on Rajab 15th. This supplication is the last part of Umm Dawud practices and is recited after performing other practices.[7] To perform Umm Dawud practices, one needs to fast the Ayyam al-Bid (literally means white days, Rajab 13, 14 and 15) first and performs ghusl at the noon of the third day. Then, after performing Zuhr prayer and Asr prayers and reciting some suras of the Qur'an, he should recite Umm Dawud or Istiftah supplication.[8]

Sources

Umm Dawud supplication is mentioned in different Shi'a and one Sunni hadiths sources: the oldest one of which is al-Shaykh al-Saduq's Fada'il al-ashhur al-thalatha. But, in this book, only the chain of transmission of the supplication and its story are mentioned. Al-Shaykh al-Saduq refers to his other book, Amal al-Sunna, for the text of the supplication, which is said to have been lost.[9]

Then, the second source is al-Shaykh al-Tusi's Misbah al-mutahajjid which, contrary to the previous book, does not contain the story of the supplication, but contains its text as one of the practices of Rajab 15th.[10] The story of the supplication and its text are also mentioned in al-Sayyid b. Tawus's Iqbal al-a'mal.[11] Al-Hakim al-Hasakani (d. 490/1058), a Sunni scholar, has also mentioned the supplication in Fada'il shahr Rajab.[12]

Al-Kaf'ami's Balad al-amin and his Misbah,[13] al-Allama al-Majlisi's Bihar al-anwar[14] and Shaykh Abbas Qummi's Mafatih al-jinan[15] are among sources which have quoted the text of the supplication from previously mentioned sources.[16]

See Also

Notes

  1. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 476.
  2. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 476.
  3. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 368.
  4. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 368.
  5. Ṣadūq, Faḍāʾil al-ashhur al-thalātha, p. 34.
  6. Akbarī, Natāj, Kāwushī dar duʿā-yi Umm Dawud, p. 82.
  7. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, under the "practices of Umm Dawud"
  8. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, under the "practices of Umm Dawud"
  9. Akbarī, Natāj, Kāwushī dar duʿā-yi Umm Dawud, p. 88.
  10. Ṭūsī, Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid, vol. 2, p. 807-812.
  11. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Iqbāl bi-l-aʿmāl al-ḥasana, vol. 3, p. 242-248.
  12. Akbarī, Natāj, Kāwushī dar duʿā-yi Umm Dawud, p. 88-91.
  13. Kafʿamī, al-Miṣbāḥ, p. 530-535; Kafʿamī, al-Balad al-amīn, p. 180-183.
  14. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 95, p. 400-403.
  15. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, under the "practices of Umm Dawud"
  16. Akbarī, Natāj, Kāwushī dar duʿā-yi Umm Dawud, p. 90-91.

References

  • Amīn, al-Sayyid Muḥsin al-. Aʿyān al-Shīʿa. Edited by Ḥasan Amīn. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1406 AH.
  • Akbarī, Zahrāʾ and Rabīʿ Natāj, Sayyid ʿAlī Akbar. Kāwushī dar duʿā-yi Umm Dawud. Tehran: Muʾassisa Farhangī-yi Nabaʾ Mubīn. No 36. Fall 1391 Sh.
  • Ibn Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā. Al-Iqbāl bi-l-aʿmāl al-ḥasana. Edited by Jawād Qayyūmī. 1st edition. Qom: Daftar-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, 1376 Sh.
  • Kafʿamī, Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Balad al-amīn wa l-dirʿ al-ḥaṣīn. 1st edition. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1418 AH.
  • Kafʿamī, Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Miṣbāḥ fī al-adʿiya wa al-ṣalawāt wa al-ziyārāt. 2nd edition. Qom: Dār al-Raḍī, 1405 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār al-jāmiʿa li-durar akhbār al-aʾimmat al-aṭhār. Edited by a group of researchers. 2nd edition. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1403 AH.
  • Qummī, Abbās. Mafātīḥ al-jinān. Uswa, [n.d].
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Faḍāʾil al-ashhur al-thalātha. Edited by Ghulām Riḍā Irfānīyān Yazdī. 1st edition. Qom: Kitābfurūshī-yi Dāwarī, 1396 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥamamd b. al-Ḥasan al-. Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid wa silāḥ al-mutaʿabbid. Beirut: Muʾassisat Fiqh al-Shīʿa, 1411 AH.