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Hafsa bt. Umar

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Hafsa bt. Umar
Wife of the Prophet (s)
Full Name Hafsa bt. 'Umar b. Khattab
Epithet Umm al-Mu'minin
Religious Affiliation Islam
Well-known Relatives The Prophet (s),'Umar b. Khattab, 'Uthman b. Maz'un
Birth 5 years before Bi'that/605-6
Place of Birth Mecca
Places of Residence Mecca, Medina
Death 45/665-6
Burial Place Al-Baqi' cemetery
امهات المؤمنین.png
Name Date of Marriage
Khadija (27 BH/595)
Sawda (before Hijra/before 622)
Aisha (1,2, or 4/622, 623, or 625)
Hafsa (3/624)
Zaynab (bt. Khuzayma) (3/624)
Umm Salama (4/625)
Zaynab (bt. Jahsh) (5/626)
Juwayriyya (5 or 6/626 or 627)
Umm Habiba (6 or 7/627 or 628)
Mariya (7/628)
Safiyya (7/628)
Maymuna (7/628)

Ḥafṣa bt. ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb (Arabic: حفصه بنت عمر بن الخطّاب) (b. 18 BH/605-6 - d. 45/665-6) was one of the wives of the Prophet (s), who got married to him in Sha'ban, 3/625, after the death of her first husband.

Together with Aisha, the other wife of the Prophet (s), they were the two who resented the Prophet (s), and the first and forth verses of the Qur'an 66 have observed this incident. She also was the one who, though discouraged later on by her brother, resolved to accompany Aisha in a rebellion against Imam 'Ali (a) in the Battle of Jamal.

She has narrated some hadiths from the Prophet (s), mostly about the hajj, prayer, marriage, and fasting.

Lineage

Her father was 'Umar b. al-Khattab, the second caliph, and her mother was Zaynab, the sister of the companion of the Prophet (s), 'Uthman b. Maz'un.

Birth

Hafsa was born 5 years before the mission of the Prophet (s), in the year when Ka'ba was rebuilt.

Marriage to Khunays

Before the emigration of the Prophet (s) to Medina, she got married to Khunays b. Hudhafa al-Sahmi[1]. Together with her husband then, they immigrated to Medina[2]. Khunays, though sick, attended the Battle of Badr[3], and died a short while after the battle[4]

Marriage to the Prophet (s)

After the demise of her husband, she got married to the Prophet (s), two or three months before the Battle of Uhud, in Sha'ban, 3/625[5]

There are historical reports that Abu Bakr and 'Uthman b. 'Affan had proposed to her before her marriage to the Prophet (s), but these reports are not reliable[6] The Prophet (s) made her a bridal gift (mahr) of 400 dirhams[7]

Literacy

Taking orders from the Prophet (s) a woman named Shafa, the daughter of 'Abd Allah al-'Adwiyya, who was a literate woman in the pre-Islamic period, taught her how to write[8].

Hurting the Prophet (s)

Hafsa and Aisha were the two who resented the Prophet (s), the first to fifth verses of the Qur'an 66 have mentioned this.[9]

She was hence, divorced by the Prophet (s)[10] though the divorce was revoked later[11].

It is narrated in some hadiths that the Prophet (s) was determined to divorce her, but Jabra'il (Gabriel) discouraged him[12]. Likewise, those hadiths which have reported her divorce, have mentioned that Jabra'il suggested the revocation. These reports are mostly mentioned in Traditionalists and Hanbali sources and are not reliable.[13]

By the time Hafsa and Aisha found out that the Prophet (s), due to his illness, was to send Imam 'Ali (a) to say prayer in the mosque in his place, they went after their fathers and brought them to the Prophet (s)[14].

In the Time of 'Uthman

For her maidservant had enchanted her, Hafsa ordered that she should be killed, by which 'Uthman b. 'Affan was distressed[15]

It is reported that Hafsa had asked a scribe of Qur'an to call for her when he gets to the verse 238 of Qur'an 2 so that he would write the verse as she wished.[16]

After the death of her father, 'Umar, also, she, according to his will, conserved the Qur'an manuscripts which were compiled during the caliphate of Abu Bakr, and in the process of the final compilation of Qur'an, she provided 'Uthman with those manuscripts, which were returned to her afterwards[17]

Battle of Jamal

Main article: Battle of Jamal

In the Battle of Jamal, Hafsa decided to accompany Aisha to rebel against 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), though her brother talked her out of this[18]

By the time Imam 'Ali (a) arrived at Dhu Qar, Aisha sent Hafsa a letter, describing Imam 'Ali (a) and his forces to be under siege. So pleased as she was, Hafsa gathered the children of the tribes Banu Taym and Banu 'Adi, and ordered her maidservants to recite poetry and cheer in happiness. Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet (s), was too distressed as she heard of this, and had Umm Kulthum, Imam 'Ali's (a) daughter, go anonymously to Hafsa's festivity, and blame her on behalf of Umm Salama. Hafsa, therefore, was ashamed and stopped the festivity[19]

Position among Sunnis

She has narrated from the Prophet (s), mostly regarding hajj, prayer, marriage, and fasting[20] Also her brother, 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar, and some others such as 'Abd Allah b. Safwan al-Jumahi and 'Amr b. Rafi', have narrated hadith from her.

Sunni jurisprudence sources have mentioned some of her Ijtihads.[21]

Sermons

Ibn Abi Tahir (Ibn Tayfur) has narrated two sermons attributed to Hafsa.[22] Ibn Shahrashub has narrated a poem by Hafsa praising Lady Fatima (a).[23]

Death

There is disagreement about the date of her death.[24] Most historians though, such as Ibn Sa'd[25] and al-Zubayr b. Bakkar[26], have dated her death in 45/665. Marwan b. al-Hakam, who was the governor of Medina at the time, said her funeral prayer[27] and she was buried in al-Baqi' cemetery[28]

Notes

  1. Muʿammar, Tasmīyat azwāj al-Nabī, p. 59.
  2. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 81.
  3. Balādhurī, Jumal min ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 54.
  4. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 393; vol. 8, p. 81.
  5. To read the whole story of the Prophet's (s) marriage with Hafsa see: Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 81, 83.
  6. Muʿammar, Tasmīyat azwāj al-Nabī, p. 60; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 83.
  7. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 4, p. 294.
  8. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 84.
  9. Quran 66:1-5
  10. Muʿammar, Tasmīyat azwāj al-Nabī, p. 77; Ibn Ḥanbal. Musnad Aḥmad, vol. 3, p. 478.
  11. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 84; Ibn Ḥanbal. Musnad Aḥmad, vol. 3, p. 478.
  12. Balādhurī, Jumal min ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 59.
  13. Kharrāṭ, Umm al-mu'minin Ḥafsa bint ʿUmar, p. 4375.
  14. Mufīd, al-Jumal wa al-nuṣra, p. 428.
  15. Mālik b. Anas, vol. 2, p. 87; Shāfiʿī, al-Umm, vol. 1, p. 293.
  16. Ibn Abī Dāwūd, al-Maṣāḥif, p. 9697
  17. Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 5, p. 210-211.
  18. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 4, p. 451-454; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 6, p. 225.
  19. Mufīd, al-Jumal wa al-nuṣra, p. 276, 277, 431.
  20. To see the content of those hadiths see: Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad Aḥmad, vol. 6, p. 283,288; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 23, p. 189,218; Ibn Kathīr, Jāmīʿ al-masānīd, vol. 15, p. 361-385.
  21. Kharrāṭ, Umm al-mu'minin Ḥafsa bint ʿUmar, p. 85-92.
  22. Kharrāṭ, Umm al-mu'minin Ḥafsa bint ʿUmar, p. 94-108.
  23. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 3, p. 403.
  24. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, part 4, p. 1812; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 7, p. 583.
  25. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 86.
  26. Ibn Bakār, al-Muntakhab min kitāb azwāj al-Nabī, p. 40.
  27. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 86.
  28. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 86; Ibn Bakār, al-Muntakhab min kitāb azwāj al-Nabī, p. 40; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 23, p. 189.

References

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