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Umm Farwa bt. al-Qasim

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This article is about the mother of Imam al-Sadiq (a). For his daughter, see Umm Farwa bt. al-Imam al-Sadiq (a).
Umm Farwa bt. al-Qasim
Mother of Imam al-Sadiq (a)
Full Name Fatima (or Qariba) bt. al-Qasim b. Muhammad
Teknonym Umm Farwa
Well-known Relatives Imam al-Baqir (a) (husband), Imam al-Sadiq (a) (son)
Place of Residence Medina
Burial Place Al-Baqi' Cemetery, Medina

Umm Farwa (Arabic: اُمّ فروة) was Imam al-Baqir's (a) wife and mother of Imam al-Sadiq (a). She was the daughter of al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr and her lineage also reaches Abu Bakr from her mother's side. Umm Farwa was a good woman who was praised by Imam al-Sadiq (a). She was also considered a narrator of hadith.

Lineage

Umm Farwa was the daughter of al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr,[1] Imam al-Baqir's (a) wife and mother of Imam al-Sadiq (a).[2] Her father was al-Qasim who was trustworthy to Imam al-Sajjad (a) and his companion and was known as the faqih of the people of Hijaz.[3]

The name of Imam al-Sadiq's (a) mother was Fatima or Qariba and her teknonym was Umm Farwa or Umm al-Qasim.[4] Her mother was Asma', daughter of 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr.[5] Since Umm Farwa reached Abu Bakr from both his mother's side and his father's side, Imam al-Sadiq (a) has been called a grandson of Abu Bakr by Sunni people. They narrate a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) saying, "Fathered me Abu Bakr twice" in which he (a) has twice called himself a child of Abu Bakr. Shi'a regard this narration forged and even taking the standards of Sunni people, it is not reliable.

Narration of Relationship between Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Abu Bakr

In Shi'a sources

Among Shi'a sources, the above-mentioned narration has only been mentioned in Kashf al-ghumma[6] and al-Irbili has narrated it as a mursal narration (whose chain of transmitters is broken) because al-Hafiz 'Abd al-'Aziz al-Janabidhi has narrated it directly from Imam al-Sadiq (a) while he died in 611/1214-1215 and Imam al-Sadiq (a) was martyred in 148/765-766. Moreover, this narration has not been mentioned in any other Shi'a sources.

In Sunni sources

This narration has been narrated by al-Dhahabi without any chain of transmission[7] and although it has been mentioned in Tahdhib al-kamil with chain of transmission,[8] in its chain of its transmitters, Hafs b. Ghiyath exists whose narrations have been considered unreliable.[9] Ibn 'Asakir has also narrated this hadith from a person called Isma'il b. Muhammad b. al-Fadl[10] while al-Dhahabi says that when Ibn 'Asakir met Isma'il, he was very old and his memory was faulty.[11] Besides, in the reference, Ibn 'Asakir has mentioned for this narration, Mu'adh b. al-Muthanna exists who is considered unjust by Ahmad b. Hanbal.[12]

Merits

About his mother, Imam al-Sadiq (a) said, "My mother was faithful, pious and good-doer and God loves good-doers."[13]

Al-Mas'udi considered her among most pious women of her time.[14] Mamaqani described her a pious and good-doing woman.[15] Merits of this woman were so much some called Imam al-Sadiq (a), "Ibn al-Mukarrama" (Son of the Great Woman).[16]

Narrator of Hadiths

Al-Barqi regarded Umm Farwa among narrators of Imam al-Sadiq's (a) hadiths[17] and al-Mas'udi says that she had narrated hadith from 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a).[18] Also, Mamaqani testified to her trustworthiness.[19]

Imam al-Sadiq (a) said that, "my mother narrated a hadith from my father telling her, 'O Umm Farwa, I ask God a thousand times day and night to forgive the sins of my followers, because due to the knowledge we have about rewards, we tolerate about hardships and trials, while our followers tolerate without knowing about them.'"[20]

Umm Farwa had a maid called Sa'ida who was famous for her knowledge and worship.[21]

Grave

Umm Farwa is buried in al-Baqi' cemetery.[22] The exact place of the grave is not known.

See Also

Notes

  1. Mufīd, al-Irshād, p. 526.
  2. Qummī, Anwār al-bahīyya, p. 229.
  3. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 42, p. 162.
  4. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 472; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 41, p. 1.
  5. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 393.
  6. Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 160.
  7. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 6, p. 255.
  8. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 71.
  9. Amīnī Gulistānī, Mādarān-i chāhārdah maʿṣūm.
  10. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 44, p. 453-454.
  11. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 20, p. 86.
  12. al-Maqṣad al-arshad fī dhikr asḥāb al-imām Aḥmad, vol. 3, p. 35.
  13. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 472.
  14. Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 152.
  15. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 3, p. 73.
  16. Kashshī, Rijāl al-Kashshī, p. 212; Qummī, Anwār al-bahīyya, p. 229.
  17. Barqī, Rijal Barqi, p. 62.
  18. Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 152.
  19. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 3, p. 73.
  20. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 72; Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 153.
  21. Qummī, Anwār al-bahīyya, p. 230. on note section.
  22. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 472.

References

  • Amīnī Gulistānī, Muḥammad. Mādarān-i chāhārdah maʿṣūm hichkudām hingām-i izdiwāj biwa nabūdand. Qom: Nashr-i Muʾallif, [n.d].
  • Barqī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Rijal Barqi. Intishārāt-i Dānishgāh-i Tehrān.
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Risāla, 1405 AH.
  • Ibn ʿAsākir, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan. Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1415 AH.
  • Irbilī, ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā al-. Kashf al-ghumma fī maʿrifat al-aʾimma. Tabriz: Maktabat Banī Hāshimī, 1381 Sh.
  • Kashshī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Rijāl al-Kashshī. Mashhad: Intishārat-i Dānishgāh-i Mashhad, 1348 Sh.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1388 AH.
  • Mamaqānī, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥasan. Tanqīḥ al-maqāl fī ʿilm al-rijāl. Najaf: Maṭbaʿat al-Murtaḍawīyya, 1352 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Wafaʾ, 1403 AH.
  • Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Ithbāt al-waṣīyya li-l Imām ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. Najaf: Maktabat al-Murtaḍawīyya, [n.d].
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿalā l-ʿibād. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Bihbūdī. Qom: Intishārat-i Islāmīyya, 1380 Sh.
  • Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Anwār al-bahīyya fī tawārīkh al-ḥujaj al-ilāhīyya. Translated by Muḥammad Muḥammadī Ishtihārdī. Qom: Naṣīr, 1380 Sh.
  • Shahīdī, Sayyid Jaʿfar. Zindigānī-i Imām Ṣādiq (a). Tehran: Daftar-i Nashr-i Farhang-i Islāmī, 1384 Sh.