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Umm al-Fadl

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This article is about the daughter of al-Ma'mun, Umm al-Fadl. For other people named Umm al-Fadl, see Umm al-Fadl (disambiguation).
Umm al-Fadl
Murderer of Imam al-Jawad (a)
Full Name Umm al-Fadl bt. Ma'mun
Lineage Banu Abbas
Well-known Relatives Ma'mun (father)
Places of Residence Khorasan, Baghdad
Era Abbasid dynasty
Known for Wife of Imam al-Jawad (a)

Umm al-Faḍl (Arabic:اُمُّ الفَضل) the daughter of Ma'mun, was the wife of Imam al-Jawad (a). Based on some sources she martyred Imam al-Jawad (a). It is said she was persuaded by Ja'far b. Ma'mun to martyr Imam (a).

Marriage

Al-Ma'mun, the Abbasid caliph, was the father of Umm al-Fadl. He was ruling in the time of Imam al-Rida (a).[1] In 202/817-8,[2] al-Ma'mun requested Imam al-Jawad (a) to be married to Umm al-Fadl, which was accepted by Imam al-Rida (a).[3] It is said Imam al-Jawad (a) travelled to Khorasan to visit his father,[4] and al-Ma'mun asked him to marry his daughter. However, al-Mas'udi stated Imam al-Jawad (a) married Umm al-Fadl when he was in Iraq; it took place after the martyrdom of Imam al-Rida (a).[5]

According to al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Ma'mun was greatly fond of knowledge, manners and morality of Imam al-Jawad (a) and he asked him to marry his daughter.[6] Imam al-Rida (a) specified the mahr of the marriage the same as Lady Fatima's (a).[7] Several supporters of al-Ma'mun disapproved of this marriage as they were afraid caliphate would be handed from Abbasid to Alids.[8] Imam al-Jawad (a) did not have any children from Umm al-Fadl.[9]

Martyrdom of Imam al-Jawad (a)

Based on al-Mas'udi, al-Mu'tasim and Ja'far b. Ma'mun (brother of Umm al-Fadl) were planning to martyr Imam al-Jawad (a). Finally when Imam (a) arrived in Baghdad to meet Mu'tasim, Ja'far encouraged Umm al-Fadl to poison grapes and bring them for Imam al-Jawad (a) which led to martyrdom of Imam al-Jawad (a).[10] However, al-Shaykh al-Mufid stated: "Although it is said Imam al-Jawad (a) was poisoned and martyred, it is not proved to me yet to testify martyrdom of Imam (a)."[11] A number of sources stated that al-Mu'tasim himself poisoned Imam (a) by means of a secretary of his ministers.[12]

Umm al-Fadl was repentant after this incident, but Imam (a) did not accept it and he cursed her.[13] After the martyrdom of Imam al-Jawad (a), al-Mu'tasim brought Umm al-Fadl to his own palace,[14] but she became severely sick and passed away after some time.[15]

Notes

  1. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 10, p. 249.
  2. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 8, p. 566; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 10, p. 269.
  3. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 10, p. 269.
  4. Bayhaqī, Tārīkh-i Bayhaq, p. 46.
  5. Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 223.
  6. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 281.
  7. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 284.
  8. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 281.
  9. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 380; Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 227.
  10. Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 227.
  11. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 295.
  12. ʿAyyāshī, Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshī, vol. 1, p. 320.
  13. Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 227.
  14. Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 345.
  15. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 381.

References

  • ʿAyyāshī, Muḥammad b. Masʿūd al-. Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshī. Edited by Rasūlī Maḥallātī. Tehran: al-Maktaba al-ʿIlmīyya al-Islāmīyya, [n.d].
  • Bayhaqī, ʿAlī b. Zayd. Tārīkh-i Bayhaq. Edited by Aḥmad Bahmanyār. Introduced by Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb Qazwīnī. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Furūghī, [n.d].
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Qom: Nashr-i ʿAllāma, 1379 AH.
  • Ibn Kathīr al-Dimashqī, Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. Al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1407 AH-1986.
  • Irbilī, ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā al-. Kashf al-ghumma fī maʿrifat al-aʾimma. Tabriz: Maktabat Banī Hāshimī, 1381 AH.
  • Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Ithbāt al-waṣīyya li ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. Qom: Muʾassisat Anṣārīyān, 1426 AH.
  • Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Murūj al-dhahab wa maʿadin al-jawhar. Edited by Asʿad Dāghir. Qom: Dār al-Hijra, 1409 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿalā l-ʿibād. Qom: Kungira-yi Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1413 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-.Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Edited by Muḥammad Abu l-faḍl Ibrāhīm. Beirut: Dar al-Turāth, 1387 AH.