Al-Kāẓimīya (Arabic:الکاظمیه) or al-Kāẓimīayn (الکاظمین) is among important religious cities of Iraq where the shrines of two infallible Imams (a), Imam al-Kazim (a) and Imam al-Jawad (a) are located. This city is of great significance to Shi'a after the religious cities of Najaf and Karbala.
The reason for naming is because of the shrines of Imam al-Kazim (a) and Imam al-Jawad (a). Other names of this city are "Kazimayn", "Balad al-Kazimi", and "al-Mashhad al-Kazimi".
Geographical Location and Climate
Kadhimiya is located near Baghdad but now attached to it due to urban expansion. It is located on the west of Tigris River and thus has a moderate climate. Raining in most times of the year is like a spring shower. Therefore, at the time of Abbasids, Baghdad and other breadbasket areas around it were decided as the capital and resort for Abbasid rulers.
Due to its special geographical location, Kadhimiya has been considered important and its history is thought to date back before Jesus Christ. At the time of Sassanids, this region has been a garden of an Iranian King called Tasuj and has been called so. In the Battle of Nahrawan in 37/657 following the order of Imam 'Ali (a), martyrs of the war were buried here and it was called "Maqbarat al-Shuhada". At the time of Abbasids, when expanding and reviving Baghdad and choosing it as the capital, this cemetery was called "Shunizi", and al-Mansur al-Dawaniqi chose it for burying Abbasid elders and families and thereafter was called "Maqabir Quraysh" (Quraysh cemetery).
Later, by the order of Harun al-Rashid, Imam al-Kazim (a) was martyred by Sindi b. Shahik and the body of Imam (a) was buried in Quraysh cemetery. After burying Imam (a), his grave was called as Mashhad Bab al-Taban. In 220/835, Imam al-Jawad (a) was buried beside the grave of Imam al-Kazim (a).
Destructions and Reconstructions
This city has been destroyed and burned due to flood, earthquake, civil, and religious wars several times and was reconstructed. Buyids were among Shi'a rulers of Baghdad who cared about the reconstruction of the cities and graves of Imams (a). 'Ala al-Din al-Juwayni, a ruler of Baghdad was among those who reconstructed the city and graves of Imams (a) after the invasion of Hulagu Khan in 651/1253-1254 to Baghdad and its destruction.
Buratha mosque is located in Buratha neighborhood. It is said that upon returning from the Battle of Nahrawan, Imam 'Ali (a) prayed in this mosque.
Safawi mosque is built by Shah Isma'il Safawi and is very beautiful.
Al-Mantaqa mosque is also known as "Masjid al-'Aqiqa".
Buried Important Figures
Imam al-Kazim (a) and Imam al-Jawad (a), the seventh and ninth Imams (a) of Shi'a are buried in this city and their shrines is known as Haram al-Kazimayn.
- Abu Hanifa
- Buhlul al-Kufi, cousin of Harun al-Rashid
- Mu'izz al-Dawla al-Daylami (one of Buyid kings)
- Fakhr al-Dawla al-Daylami
- Mushrif al-Dawla al-Daylami
- Ibn Hamdun
- Jalal al-Dawla Al Buya
- Diya' al-Din Ibn al-Athir
- Ibn al-Naqid
- Ibn al-'Alqami
- Abu Muhammad Hasan al-Mahlabi, minister of Mu'izz al-Dawla al-Daylami
- Al-Amin, Abbasid caliph
- Ja'far b. Mansur al-Dawaniqi
- Farhad Mirza Mu'tamid al-Dawla, uncle of Nasir al-Din Shah
- Al-Shaykh al-Mufid, among great scholars of Shi'a in fiqh and kalam
- Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
- Ibn Quluwayh, among Shi'a fiqh and hadith scholars, author of Kamil al-Ziyarat
- Al-Sharif al-Radi and Al-Sharif al-Murtada, whose graves and burial place (as primarily said) is there.
- Abu Sabha Musa b. Ibrahim Asghar b. musa al-Kazim, known as al-Murtada
- 'Awn and 'Abd Allah, among the children of Imam 'Ali (a)
- Al-Amir Sayyid Abu l-Hasan 'Ali b. al-Murtada b. 'Ali al-'Alawi al-Hasani
- Abu Yusuf Qadi, among Sunni scholars in fiqh and a student of Abu Hanifa who was known as Qadi l-Qudat
- Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr
- Al-Sayyid Hibat al-Din al-Shahristani
- The material for writing this article has been mainly taken from کاظمین in Farsi wikishia.