Al-Khayran the Servant
|Al-Khayran the Servant|
|Companion of||Imam al-Rida (a), Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a)|
|Well Known As||al-Asbati and al-Qaratisi|
|Students||Al-Hasan b. Ali b. al-Washsha, Al-Husayn b. Muhammad b. al-Ash'ari, Ali b. Mahziyar al-Ahwazi, Sahl b. Ziyad al-Adami|
|Activities||Deputyship of Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a)|
Al-Khayrān the servant (Arabic:خيران الخادم) was a Shi'a transmitter of hadith in the second/eighth and the third/ninth centuries who was a servant of Imam al-Rida (a) and deputy of Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a). Great scholars such as al-Shaykh al-Tusi have mentioned him as reliable. According to one of the correspondences of Imam al-Hadi (a) with al-Khayran the servant, contemporary scholars have considered his position higher than deputyship. People such as Ali b. Mahziyar al-Ahwazi and Abu Sa'id Sahl b. Ziyad al-Razi have transmitted hadiths from him.
There is no mention of his lineage and teknonym in references of rijal. His title has been mentioned as al-Asbati and al-Qaratisi. Seemingly, al-Qaratisi has been distorted form of al-Faratisi, since according to the report of al-Mas'udi, al-Khayran was servant of Faratis, mother of Wathiq Billah, the Abbasid caliph (ruling between 227/841-42 - 232/846-47) and thus he became famous as al-Faratisi.
Association with Imams (a)
Al-Khayran was the servant of Imam al-Rida (a) and a deputy of Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a). There are reports about his association with Imam al-Hadi (a) and his divinations about some events and also al-Khayran's reverence and humbleness before Imam (a).
Also, there are narrations about Imam al-Rida's (a) clear mentioning of Imam al-Jawad's (a) imamate and also mentioning of Imam al-Hadi's (a) imamate transmitted by al-Khayrani who was thought to be al-Khayran's son.
Al-Tusi has mentioned him as reiable and Ibn Shahrashub has counted him among reliable companions of Imam al-Hadi (a). He had intimate relationships with Imams (a) and was trusted by them so that in one of his correspondences, Imam al-Hadi (a) has considered his opinion the same as al-Khayran's and obeying it the same as obeying himself.
In the Views of Contemporary Scholars
Contemporary scholars of rijal have considered the mentioned correspondence an evidence that he was more than a deputy and an indication of his reliability and high position before Imam (a).
Letter to Imam (a)
What is available about his jurisprudential hadiths he has transmitted is a correspondence with one of Imams (a) about the rulings of prayer wearing clothes sullied by alcoholic drinks or the meat of pig. Contemporary scholars of rijal and jurisprudence have considered it possible that this letter has been sent to Imam al-Sadiq (a) and since it is impossible that al-Khayran had been living at the time of Imam al-Sadiq (a), attributing this letter to him has been doubted.
- Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 2, p. 564; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 386; Zanjāni, Kitāb al-jāmiʿ fī al-rijāl, p. 734; Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tahdhīb al-maqāl, vol. 5, p. 427-429.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 498; Zanjāni, Kitāb al-jāmiʿ fī al-rijāl, p. 734.
- Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 608-609; Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 4, p. 224.
- Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣiyya, p. 232.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 498; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 301.
- Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 155.
- Barqī, Kitāb al-Rijāl, p. 58; Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 324; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 386.
- Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 610-611; Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 498.
- Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 386.
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 402.
- Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 611.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 405; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 1, p. 279; vol. 2, p. 358-359.
- Baḥrānī, al-Ḥadāʾiq al-nāḍira, vol. 5, p. 100; Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 7, p. 86.
- Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 155.
- Baḥrānī, Yūsuf al-. Al-Ḥadāʾiq al-nāḍira fī aḥkām al-ʿitrat al-ṭāhira. Qom: 1363-1367 Sh.
- Barqī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Kitāb al-Rijāl. Edited by Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥaddith Armawī. Tehran: 1383 Sh.
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Edited by Ḥāshim Rasūlī. Qom: [n.d].
- Khoeī, Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim al-. Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth. [n.p]. [n.d].
- Kashshī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl known as Rijāl al-Kashshī. Surmised by Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī. Edited by Ḥasan Muṣṭafawī. Mashhad: 1348 Sh.
- Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. [n.p]. [n.d].
- Mamaqānī, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥasan. Tanqīḥ al-maqāl fī ʿilm al-rijāl. Edited by Muḥyi al-Dīn al-Mamaqānī. Qom: 1423 AH.
- Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Ithbāt al-waṣiyya li l-Imām ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. Qom: 1382 Sh.
- Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿalā l-ʿibād. Beirut: 1414 AH.
- Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Muḥammad ʿAlī. Tahdhīb al-maqāl kitāb al-rijāl li-Shaykh al-jalīl Abi l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Najāshī. volume 5. Qom: 1417 AH.
- Najāshī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Fihrist asmāʾ muṣannifī al-Shīʿa al-mushtahir bi rijāl al-Najāshī. Edited by Mūsā Shubayrī Zanjānī. Qom: 1407 AH.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Khiṣāl. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: 1362 Sh.
- Shūshtarī, Muḥammad Taqī. Qāmūs al-rijāl. [n.p]. [n.d].
- Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tahdhīb al-aḥkām. Edited by Sayyid Ḥasan al-Khursān. Tehran: 1390.
- Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī. Edited by Jawād Qayyūmī al-Iṣfahānī. Qom: 1423 AH.
- Zanjāni, Mūsā b. ʿAbd Allāh. Kitāb al-jāmiʿ fī al-rijāl. Qom: 1394 AH.